Bibliography of Willa Cather's Reading

This bibliography was created by Sharon Hoover and Melissa Ryan. They know that the existing work, though large, is incomplete, and they invite interested scholars, readers, and students to submit new works to the bibliography. To do so, please contact the editor of the Willa Cather Archive at . Any resource that attempts to be comprehensive depends upon a community of scholars, readers, and other interested parties.

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Total Number of Entries in Reading Bibliography: 1056

    Abbe Mouret's Transgression

  1. Author: Zola, Emile
    Title: Abbe Mouret's Transgression
    Date: 1875
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "[Zola] crouches like Caliban upon his island, and the music of Ariel is to him only a noise which frightens and disturbs.... Of all Mr. Zola's painful novels, there are two that are less painful than the rest, Abbe Mouret's Transgression and The Downfall."
    Note Source: Journal 12/13/1894


  2. "The Absent-Minded Beggar"

  3. Author: Kipling, Rudyard
    Title: "The Absent-Minded Beggar"
    Date: 1899
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather quotes "The Absent-Minded Beggar" in her description of Lord Kitchener's troops' return from Africa.
    Note Source: Journal 10/19/1902


  4. "Across the Rio Grande"

  5. Title: "Across the Rio Grande"
    Genre: song
    Note Relating to Cather: "Across the Rio Grande" is sung by Emil Bergson and Raoul Marcel in O Pioneers! There are numerous renditions of this song from the nineteenth century to the present. The specific lines Cather quotes have not been identified.
    Note Source: O Pioneers! Part IV, Chap. 1


  6. Active Service

  7. Author: Crane, Stephen
    Title: Active Service
    Date: 1899
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "If one happens to have some trifling regard for pure English, he does not come forth from the reading of this text unscathed ... Every page is like the next morning taste of a champagne supper, and is heavy with the smell of stale cigarettes."
    Note Source: Leader 11/11/1899


  8. "Adelaide"

  9. Author: Matthisson, Friedrich von
    Title: "Adelaide"
    Date: 1787
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Professor Wunsch's inscription to Thea—"Einst, O Wunder!" ("Some day, a miracle!") is the opening of the third stanza of this sentimental German love poem, set to music by Beethoven.
    Note Source: Song of the Lark Part I, Chap. 13


  10. Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus

  11. Author: Morison, Samuel Eliot
    Title: Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus
    Date: 1942
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather says that she enjoyed Morison's book on Christopher Columbus.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1527


  12. Adonais

  13. Author: Shelley, Percy Bysshe
    Title: Adonais
    Date: 1821
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1895 Courier article, Cather writes in an essay on Poe: "The sun comes forth and many reptiles spawn,/ He sets and each ephemeral insect then/ Is gathered unto death without a dawn,/ And the immortal stars awake again" (XXIX, line 253-6). In an 1898 Courier article,Cather quotes "that unrest which men miscall delight," from stanza 40, in a piece on the young runaway Adelaide Mould, daughter of the comic opera star Marion Manola.
    Note Source: Courier 10/12/1895; Courier 2/19/1898


  14. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

  15. Author: Twain, Mark (Samuel Clemens)
    Title: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
    Date: 1884
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: According to a letter, Cather still "loves" Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. In another letter, Cather recommends Adventures of Huckleberry Finn for inclusion in anthology for soldiers. In an 1895 Courier article Cather writes: "There is that thoroughly stupid Recollections of Joan of Arc by no less an historical and literary authority than Mark Twain. It's only Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn in very transparent sixteenth-century dress and talking the barbarous English in which school boys write their first historical novels." In an 1897 Home Monthly article Cather writes: "I got a letter last week from a little boy just half-past seven who had just read Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer. He said: 'If there are any more books like them in the world, send them to me quick.' I had to humbly confess to him that if there were any others I had not the good fortune to know of them.... Certainly Mark Twain is much better when he writes of his Missouri boys than when he makes sickly romances about Joan of Arc. And certainly he never did a better piece of work than The Prince and the Pauper."
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1213; A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1240; Courier 10/5/1895; Home Monthly 5/1897


  16. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer

  17. Author: Twain, Mark (Samuel Clemens)
    Title: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
    Date: 1876
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1895 Courier article Cather writes: "There is that thoroughly stupid Recollections of Joan of Arc by no less an historical and literary authority than Mark Twain. It's only Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn in very transparent sixteenth-century dress and talking the barbarous English in which school boys write their first historical novels." In an 1897 Home Monthly article Cather writes: "I got a letter last week from a little boy just half-past seven who had just read Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer. He said: 'If there are any more books like them in the world, send them to me quick.' I had to humbly confess to him that if there were any others I had not the good fortune to know of them.... Certainly Mark Twain is much better when he writes of his Missouri boys than when he makes sickly romances about Joan of Arc. And certainly he never did a better piece of work than The Prince and the Pauper." In The Professor's House, Godfrey St. Peter complains because Horace Langtry, a popular history professor, gives credit to students for reading Tom Sawyer instead of studying the Missouri Compromise. In "Old Mrs. Harris," the Templeton twins beg Gramma Harris to read Tom Sawyer.
    Note Source: Courier 10/5/1895; Home Monthly 5/1897; The Professor's House Part I, Chap. 3; Obscure Destinies 76


  18. Aeneid

  19. Author: Virgil
    Title: Aeneid
    Date: c. 20 B.C.E.
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Namesake," Lyon Hartwell found a copy of the Aeneid in his uncle's trunk. Both Jim Burden and Tom Outland read the Aeneid before entering the university. Tom Outland specifically recites from memory for Godfrey St. Peter: "Infandum, reginina, jubes [iubes] renovare dolorem ("Beyond all words, O queen, is the grief thou biddest me revive" Book 2, l. 3). Finally, in Shadows on the Rock, Auclair compares Blinker to Dido in the Aeneid. Auclair tells Cecile the words of Queen Dido: "Having known misery, I have learned to pity the miserable." Later, the narrator says, "when an adventurer carries his gods with him into a remote and savage country, the colony he founds will, from the beginning, have graces, traditions, and riches of the mind and spirit" (See book 1, l.6). According to a note in My Antonia, "Cather knew Virgil's Latin poem well, having studied it both in Red Cloud and at the University of Nebraska." In Shadows on the Rock the line "inferretque deos Latio" ("and he brought his gods to Latium")is from Book 1, line 6. In an 1895 Courier article Cather writes: "There have been innumerable attempts to dramatize that greatest love story of the ages. They began with Virgil, who tried to do it in that dramatic fourth book of the Aeneid in the person of the infelix Dido. Since then poets and dramatists and novelists galore have struggled with it. But among them all the great William [Shakespeare] is the only man who has made a possible character of the Egyptian queen."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 145; (My Antonia Book II, Chap. 14; The Professor's House Book I, Chap. 10; Book II, Chapp. 6; Shadows on the Rock Book II, Chap. 7; Book 3, Chap. 6; My Antonia Scholarly Edition, note 170; Shadows on the Rock Book II, Chap. 6; Courier 10/26/1895


  20. Aftermath

  21. Author: Allen, James Lane
    Title: Aftermath
    Date: 1895
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather tells readers that if they read A Kentucky Cardinal they will also read Aftermath.
    Note Source: Home Monthly April 1897


  22. "Afton Water"

  23. Author: Burns, Robert
    Title: "Afton Water"
    Date: 1792
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather:  In The Song of the Lark, as Mrs. Kronborg lies dying, she recalls Thea singing "Flow gently, Sweet Afton." Dr. Archie whistles the tune to "Afton Water" earlier in the novel as he is advised by his tailor as to what to wear to the city. He is going to see Thea. The original tune was by Alexander Hume of Edinburgh. However, the tune best known in the United States is by James E. Spilman and was published in 1838.
    Note Source: The Song of the Lark Book VI, Chap. 3; Book V, Chap. 1


  24. "Alexander's Feast"

  25. Author: Dryden, John
    Title: "Alexander's Feast"
    Date: 1697
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Song of the Lark VI, Fred Ottenburg recites the line "None but the brave deserve the fair" to Dr. Archie.
    Note Source: The Song of the Lark Book VI, Chap. 5


  26. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland

  27. Author: Carroll, Lewis
    Title: Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
    Date: 1865
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In a review of Dumas' Camille, Cather writes, "The death scene is usually made such an orgy of grief that it sometimes seems that Marguerite might, like in Alice in Wonderland, literally float in her tears." In an 1897 Home Monthly article, Cather writes: "If there is somewhere a boy or girl who has reached the age of twelve without having read Alice's Adventures in Wonderland or her experiences in Through the Looking-Glass, I profoundly pity that same child." In a 1900 Library article, Cather quotes from the Mock Turtle's song as she watches the fish in Lemuel Miller's garden pond. In "The Treasure of Far Island," Douglass tells Margie that he wishes he had some of "the cake that Alice ate in Wonderland . . . ." In "Flavia and her Artists," Arthur Hamilton has created a musical setting for Carroll's poem "Jabberwocky." In the same story, Will Maidenwood's and Frank Wellington's discussions about Wellington's works are compared to the endless wrangling between the lion and the unicorn. Other references to Through the Looking Glass and What Alice Found There can be found throughout the story.
    Note Source: Journal 2/4/1901; Home Monthly 10/1897; Library 8/4/1900; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 275; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 167; 158


  28. The Amazons

  29. Author: Pinero, Arthur Wing
    Title: The Amazons
    Date: 1895
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Pinero "has an unusually light touch for an Englishman, just a spice of Congreve, and he has written some of the most delightful of farces, of which The Amazons is probably the best known in this country."
    Note Source: Courier 7/22/1899


  30. America in France

  31. Author: Palmer, Frederick
    Title: America in France
    Date: 1917
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: A likely source for One of Ours.
    Note Source: One of Ours "Historical Essay" Scholarly Edition 652


  32. The American

  33. Author: James, Henry
    Title: The American
    Date: 1877
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather:  "'Louie,' St. Peter spoke with deep feeling, 'do you happen to have read a novel of Henry James, The American? There's a rather nice scene in it, in which a young Frenchman, hurt in a duel, apologizes for the behaviour of his family. I'd like to do something of the sort.'"
    Note Source: The Professor's House Book 1, Chap. 16


  34. The American Novel

  35. Author: Van Doren, Carl
    Title: The American Novel
    Date: 1921
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather says she wants to discuss with Van Doren his chapter on Henry James,
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather 570


  36. The American State University, Its Relation to Democracy

  37. Author: Foerster, Norman
    Title: The American State University, Its Relation to Democracy
    Date: 1937
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather says that she agrees with Foerster's book on the state universities and is glad that he wrote it.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1436


  38. Amiel's Journal

  39. Author: Amiel, Henri Frederic
    Title: Amiel's Journal
    Date: 1893
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Journal of Swiss poet and philosopher Henri Frederic Amiel (1821-1888), translated by Mrs. Humphry Ward in 1885. Cather describes Edgar Allan Poe as having the "dense, complete, hopeless misunderstanding which, as Amiel said, is the secret of that sad smile upon the lips of the great." The full quote reads as follows: "To be misunderstood even by those whom one loves is the cross and bitterness of life. It is the secret smile on the lips of the great men which so few understand" (I,4).
    Note Source: Courier 10/12/1895


  40. Among the Breakers

  41. Author: Baker, George Melville
    Title: Among the Breakers
    Date: 1873
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Acted by Aunt Tillie in The Song of the Lark
    Note Source: The Song of the Lark Part 1, Book 9


  42. Amores

  43. Author: Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso)
    Title: Amores
    Date: c. 10 BCE
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Song of the Lark I, Thea Kronborg asks Professor Wunsch to translate a line that she has found in a book given to her by Dr. Archie: "Lente currite, lente currite, noctis equi." He writes "in a clear, elegant Gothic hand, -- 'Go slowly, go slowly, ye steeds of the night.'"
    Note Source: Song of the Lark Part I, Chap. 4


  44. Anna Karenina

  45. Author: Tolstoy, Leo
    Title: Anna Karenina
    Date: 1878
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1896 Journal article Cather writes: "Tolstoi is writing a new novel. Heaven grant that it is not another Master and Man, and yet the deluded old man once wrote Anna Karenina!" In a letter to H.L. Mencken, "Cather writes that when she was fourteen she came upon four of Tolstoy's works — Anna Karenina, The Cossacks, The Death of Ivan Ilyich, and The Kreutzer Sonata — and for the next three years read them over and over again. She says that this reading so strongly colored the way she saw her own world in America that she eventually turned to a long apprenticeship with Henry James and Mrs. Wharton to get over it. Yet in writing O Pioneers!, she wonders if she has really recovered from the Russian influence." In The Song of the Lark, Thea buys a "poor translation" of Anna Karenina and is able to forget the people of Moonstone in her absorption in the story; but "Thea would have been astonished if she could have known how, years afterward, when she had need of them, those old faces [of Moonstone] were to come back to her... that they would seem to her then as full of meaning, as mysteriously marked by Destiny, as the people who danced the mazurka under the elegant Korsunsky," the director of the ball in Part I, Chap. 22 of Tolstoy's novel. In "Consequences" in Uncle Valentine and Other Stories, Henry Eastman tells Kier Cavenaugh that he thinks most suicides are without motive, merely acts of desperation, like Anna Karenina's.
    Note Source: Journal 5/17/1896; O Pioneers! Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay" 291; Song of the Lark Part I, Chap. 17; Uncle Valentine and Other Stories 76


  46. Antony and Cleopatra

  47. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: Antony and Cleopatra
    Date: 1623
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Professor's House, after talking with Robert Crane about the suit he is bringing against Tom Outland's estate, St. Peter reflects, "If Outland were here to-night, he might say with Mark Antony, My fortunes have corrupted honest men" (IV. v. 16-17). In an 1894 Journal article Cather describes actress Maggie Mitchell as "old and shrunken and 'wrinkled deep in time'"; the line is from Antony and Cleopatra, I.v. In an 1895 Courier article, Cather did a review of Lillian Lewis as Shakespeare's Cleopatra: "I wish it had been Sardou's Cleopatra that Miss Lewis played, for, compared to Shakespeare's it is cheap and tawdry, it has less beauty to mar, less dignity to lose. There have been innumerable attempts to dramatize that greatest love story of the ages. They began with Virgil, who tried to do it in that dramatic fourth book of the Aeneid in the person of the infelix Dido. Since then poets and dramatists and novelists galore have struggled with it. But among them all the great William is the only man who has made a possible character of the Egyptian queen."
    Note Source: The Professor's House Book I, Chap. 13; Journal 3/11/1894; Courier 10/26/1895


  48. Aphrodite

  49. Author: Louys, Pierre
    Title: Aphrodite
    Date: 1896
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: The novel Aphrodite was the basis for the libretto by Louis de Gramont and the music by Camille Erlanger. Mary Garden sang the role of Chrysis in the first American performance at the Metropolitan Opera. In "Coming Aphrodite" Eden Bower sings it.
    Note Source: Youth and the Bright Medusa 59


  50. "April"

  51. Author: Emerson, Ralph Waldo
    Title: "April"
    Date: 1876
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: "Mr. Aldrich's 'Memory,' a little masterpiece of ten lines, Emerson's 'April,' Poe's 'To Helen,' and Sidney Lanier's 'Into the Wood[s] My Master Went' will outlast many of the more ambitious efforts of our earlier poets."
    Note Source: Gazette 11/30/1902


  52. The Arabian Nights' Entertainment

  53. Author: Lane, Edward William, trans.
    Title: The Arabian Nights' Entertainment
    Date: 1909
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 Caroline Noble in "The Garden Lodge" recalls "a tale in which the Genie brought the princess of China to the sleeping prince of Damascus." In "The Sculptor's Funeral" in Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 Steavens thinks the sculptor was "like the Arabian prince who fought the enchantress spell for spell." In a 1901 Index article Cather says of the Chinese embassy in Washington, D.C.: "the interior sets one to reading the Arabian Nights over again."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 196; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 180; Index 1/5/1901


  54. Ariadne: The Story of a Dream

  55. Author: Ouida (Marie Louise de la Ramee)
    Title: Ariadne: The Story of a Dream
    Date: 1877
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1895 Courier article Cather writes: "Sometimes I wonder why God ever trusts talent in the hands of women, they usually make such an infernal mess of it. I think He must do it as a sort of ghastly joke. Really, it would be hard to find a better plot than is in that same Under Two Flags, and the book contains the rudiments of a great style, and it also contains some of the most driveling nonsense and mawkish sentimentality and contemptible feminine weakness to be found anywhere." Also mentioned: A Village Commune, Pascarel, Ariadne, Wanda, and Friendship; each has merits, but "I hate to read them." According to an 1899 Leader article, Ouida's Ariadne "is full of display of this sort and of information and misinformation on Greek sculpture, dispensed with haughty assurance. To realize fully the garish superficiality of such work one has only to compare it with a masterpiece like George Moore's Evelyn Innes, which deals understandingly with the art which is its central theme."
    Note Source: Courier 11/23/1895; Leader 6/17/1899


  56. Arms and the Man

  57. Author: Shaw, George Bernard
    Title: Arms and the Man
    Date: 1898
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Calls Shaw's The Devil's Disciple "eccentric" like Arms and the Man.
    Note Source: Leader 3/29/1898


  58. Army of Shadows

  59. Author: Kessel, Joseph
    Title: Army of Shadows
    Date: 1944
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather recommends Joseph Kessel's Army of Shadows to Zoe Akins.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1673


  60. The Arrow of Gold

  61. Author: Conrad, Joseph
    Title: The Arrow of Gold
    Date: 1919
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather considers The Arrow of Gold "weak."
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #463


  62. "The Artist's Dream"

  63. Author: Schreiner, Olive
    Title: "The Artist's Dream"
    Date: 1891
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Olive Schreiner once wrote a story of an artist who painted pictures in a wonderful red color that none of his fellow painters could imitate. They sought the world over for a color like that and never found it. He worked on, growing paler day by day, never revealing his secret. But after he was dead, when his fellows went to put his grave clothes on his, they found an old wound over his heart with open and calloused edges. Then they knew where he got his color."
    Note Source: Courier 12/11/1897


  64. Ashes of Empire: A Romance

  65. Author: Chambers, Robert
    Title: Ashes of Empire: A Romance
    Date: 1898
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Myself, I have always read Mr. Chambers for the pictures I find in his books, not for the people I meet there."
    Note Source: Leader 12/10/1898


  66. "As I Walked out in the Streets of Laredo" or "The Cowboy's Lament"

  67. Title: "As I Walked out in the Streets of Laredo" or "The Cowboy's Lament"
    Genre: song
    Note Relating to Cather: An old song, it can be found in Carl Sandburg's The American Songbag (1927). In My Antonia, Otto Fuchs sings it on a Saturday night.
    Note Source: My Antonia Book I, Chap. 1


  68. As You Like It

  69. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: As You Like It
    Date: 1623
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Eric Hermannson's Soul" Margaret Elliot's fiance writes to her about his opportunity to manage a production of As You Like It. According to an 1899 Courier article, Cather says of Hewlett's The Forest Lovers: "Mr. Hewlett makes no more effort to produce an historical setting than Shakespeare did in As You Like It."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 373; Courier 8/26/1899


  70. "At the End of the Passage"

  71. Author: Kipling, Rudyard
    Title: "At the End of the Passage"
    Date: 1891
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather, on Bierce's "The Man and the Snake": "it haunts your memory and confronts you in the dark like Kipling's 'At the End of the Passage'"; the story is from Life's Handicap.
    Note Source: Leader 3/25/1898


  72. The Autobiography of Joseph Jefferson

  73. Author: Jefferson, Joseph
    Title: The Autobiography of Joseph Jefferson
    Date: 1889
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an open letter to Joseph Jefferson collected for Cather's unpublished Player Letters, she "drew freely on Jefferson's Autobiography."
    Note Source: World and the Parish 2:680


  74. The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table

  75. Author: Holmes, Oliver Wendell
    Title: The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table
    Date: 1858
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "His humor was entirely un-American. Mark Twain's broad humor is the characteristic American humor. But Dr. Holmes' wit was delicate and classic as that of Horace or Charles Lamb, while his scholarship was as profound and feeling and free from pedantry as that of Mr. Andrew Lang.... No, Dr. Holmes could not write a novel, it is only because of the Autocrat [1858] that we can forgive Elsie Venner [1861] and The Guardian Angel [1867]. But through all his work there is the charm of a truly human personality."
    Note Source: Journal 10/14/1894


  76. Average Americans

  77. Author: Roosevelt, Theodore Jr.
    Title: Average Americans
    Date: 1919
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "[I]t is likely that Cather read Theodore Roosevelt Jr.'s Average Americans (1919). Roosevelt, son of the former president, was one of G.P. Cather's superior officers; his account of the experiences of the Twenty-sixth Infantry mentions G.P.'s death and includes a picture of G.P. with his fellow officers."
    Note Source: One of Ours "Historical Essay" Scholarly Edition 652


  78. The Awakening

  79. Author: Chopin, Kate
    Title: The Awakening
    Date: 1899
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "There was, indeed, no need that a second Madame Bovary be written, but an author's choice of themes is frequently as inexplicable as his choice of a wife....This is particularly so in women who write, and I shall not attempt to say why Miss Chopin has devoted so exquisite and sensitive, well-governed a style to so trite and sordid a theme."
    Note Source: Leader 7/8/1899


  80. The Awkward Age

  81. Author: James, Henry
    Title: The Awkward Age
    Date: 1899
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Reading The Awkward Age with Isabelle.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #290


    Babbitt

  1. Author: Lewis, Sinclair
    Title: Babbitt
    Date: 1922
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Her mother was "vexed" by Babbitt.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #719


  2. "Bacchus"

  3. Author: Emerson, Ralph Waldo
    Title: "Bacchus"
    Date: 1847
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather quotes several lines from Emerson in her essay on younger poets.
    Note Source: Gazette 11/30/1902


  4. Baltimore Sun

  5. Title: Baltimore Sun
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: From a week old Baltimore Sun Henry Colbert learned that his son-in-law had died.
    Note Source: Sapphira and the Slave Girl Book IV, Chap. 3


  6. The Barn-Stormers

  7. Author: Williamson, Alice Muriel (Harcourt Williamson)
    Title: The Barn-Stormers
    Date: 1897
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "It is no easy thing to write a good stage novel and faithfully preserve the atmosphere which eventually forms the lives of the people who live in it....It would be well if all authors before writing of a particular class or profession would inform themselves as thoroughly as Mrs. Harcourt Williamson has done."
    Note Source: Courier 4/16/1898


  8. "The Battle of Marathon"

  9. Author: Browning, Elizabeth Barrett
    Title: "The Battle of Marathon"
    Date: 1820
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In Sapphira and the Slave Girl, General Turner Ashby is said to be "Like Paris handsome and like Hector brave."
    Note Source: Sapphira and the Slave Girl Book IX, Chap. 1


  10. Beau Brummell

  11. Author: Fitch, Clyde
    Title: Beau Brummell
    Date: 1890
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather reviewed Richard Mansfield in Beau Brummell, written for him by Clyde Fitch.
    Note Source: Journal 4/24/1894


  12. Becky Sharp

  13. Author: Mitchell, Langdon
    Title: Becky Sharp
    Date: 1899
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather predicts that this adaptation of Thackeray's Vanity Fair would "not be a popular piece."
    Note Source: Courier 4/21/1900


  14. Beethoven: His Spiritual Development

  15. Author: Sullivan, J. W.N.
    Title: Beethoven: His Spiritual Development
    Date: 1927
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather recommends Sullivan's Beethoven: His Spiritual Development.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #882


  16. The Beldonald Holbein

  17. Author: James, Henry
    Title: The Beldonald Holbein
    Date: 1903
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Thomas Beer remarks that Cather "was not immune to influences--who is?--and the excessively curious will find a phrase of "The Beldonald Holbein" and a simile from "The Pace of Youth" transmuted in this [Cather's] early work."
    Note Source: Willa Cather Remembered 80


  18. A Bell for Adano

  19. Author: Hersey, John
    Title: A Bell for Adano
    Date: 1944
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In a letter, Cather wrote that A Bell for Adano is a "very good book." In another letter, Cather says that she did a lot of reading during the winter. Found only Hersey'sA Bell for Adano worth reading among recent ones.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1664; A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1703


  20. "Ben Bolt"

  21. Author: English, Thomas Dunn
    Title: "Ben Bolt"
    Date: 1843
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In Sapphira and the Slave Girl, Nancy recalls the line "and the master so kind and so true." The line is from the third verse of "Ben Bolt" as it was sung by Nelson Kneass in Pittsburgh and became a hit.
    Note Source: Sapphira and the Slave Girl Book VI, Chap. 2


  22. The Bent Twig

  23. Author: Fisher, Dorothy Canfield
    Title: The Bent Twig
    Date: 1915
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather reflects that different readers read Canfield's and Cather's novels.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #366


  24. Berlin Diary: The Journal of a Foreign Correspondent, 1934-1941

  25. Author: Shirer, William L.
    Title: Berlin Diary: The Journal of a Foreign Correspondent, 1934-1941
    Date: 1941
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Shirer's book appears in a list at top of letter.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1563


  26. The Best Stories of Sarah Orne Jewett

  27. Author: Jewett, Sarah Orne
    Title: The Best Stories of Sarah Orne Jewett
    Date: 1925
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather wrote a preface to The Best Stories of Sarah Orne Jewett.
    Note Source: The Best Stories of Sarah Orne Jewett; See also Not Under Forty 76


  28. The Better Sort

  29. Author: James, Henry
    Title: The Better Sort
    Date: 1903
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather says that the stories in The Better Sort are "complex and obscure."
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #85


  30. Bible: 1 Kings 19:4-8

  31. Title: Bible: 1 Kings 19:4-8
    Note Relating to Cather: In Death Comes for the Archbishop, Jean Latour compares his experiences in the desert with those of Elijah.
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Book I Chap.2


  32. Bible: 1 Samuel 18

  33. Title: Bible: 1 Samuel 18
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Behind the Singer Tower," the line "Is it well with the young man Absalom?" compares Hughie Macfarlane's worry for Stanley Merryweather with King David's anguish at his son's death.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 48


  34. Bible : 2 Corinthians 11:27

  35. Title: Bible : 2 Corinthians 11:27
    Note Relating to Cather: In Death Comes for the Archbishop, the early missionaries are said to suffer "hunger, thirst, cold, nakedness," a reference to the sufferings of St. Paul and the early missionaries.
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Book IX, Chap. 4


  36. Bible: 2 Corinthians 5:1

  37. Title: Bible: 2 Corinthians 5:1
    Note Relating to Cather: When Claude Wheeler sees four half- built ships, he recalls the words from the Bible: "an house not built of hands."
    Note Source: One of Ours Book IV, Chap. 1


  38. Bible: 2 Kings 2:23-24

  39. Title: Bible: 2 Kings 2:23-24
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Strategy of the Were-Wolf Dog," the White Bear is said not to be like the story of the bears who attacked the children who taunted Elisha.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 442


  40. Bible: 2 Kings 5:1-20

  41. Title: Bible: 2 Kings 5:1-20
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Song of the Lark, Mrs. Kronborg tells daughter Anna to read the story of Naaman the Leper when Anna complains about Thea's playing "secular music" on Sunday.
    Note Source: The Song of the Lark Book I Chap. 18


  42. Bible: 2 Samuel 18-19

  43. Title: Bible: 2 Samuel 18-19
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Song of the Lark. Dr. Archie reflects that ministers' wives seem to feel an affinity toward David's lament for Absalom.
    Note Source: The Song of the Lark Book II Chap. 1


  44. Bible: 2 Samuel 21

  45. Title: Bible: 2 Samuel 21
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Song of the Lark II, Dr. Archie is perusing Aurelia S. Larsen's devotional poetry when he observes that ministers' wives like to write poems about "Jepthah's Daughter, Rizpah, David's Lament for Absalom, etc. The doctor found the book very amusing."
    Note Source: The Song of the Lark Book II Chap.1


  46. Bible: Acts 9:4; 22:7; 26:14

  47. Title: Bible: Acts 9:4; 22:7; 26:14
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Eric Hermannson's Soul," Asa Skinner shouts again and again, "Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me?"
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 361


  48. Bible: Amos: 4:11

  49. Title: Bible: Amos: 4:11
    Note Relating to Cather: Victor Morse in One of Ours says that the phrase "as a brand from the burning" is "all the scripture I can remember."
    Note Source: One of Ours Book V, Chap. 2


  50. Bible: Daniel 1:1-7

  51. Title: Bible: Daniel 1:1-7
    Note Relating to Cather: In Sapphira and the Slave Girl, when Henry Colbert is marking passages with an "S" to indicate that they are about slaves, he recalls that Daniel was one of the "slaves in foreign lands."
    Note Source: Sapphira and the Slave Girl Book III, Chap. 3


  52. Bible: Daniel 2

  53. Title: Bible: Daniel 2
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Jack-a-Boy," the narrator says that "the revelation of the greatest Revealer drew men together" just as Jack does. The Revealer is the God Daniel invokes when he interprets Nebuchadnezzar's dream.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 322


  54. Bible: Exodus

  55. Title: Bible: Exodus
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Professor's House, Godfrey St. Peter tells his seniors that Moses "invented elaborate ceremonials to give them [the Hebrew slaves] a feeling of dignity and purpose."
    Note Source: The Professor's House Book I, Chap. 5


  56. Bible: Exodus 14:16-29

  57. Title: Bible: Exodus 14:16-29
    Note Relating to Cather: In One of Ours, after Claude's death, Evangeline Wheeler mourns as she still receives his letters: "In the dark months that followed, when human nature looked to her uglier than it had ever done before, those letters were Mrs. Wheeler's comfort. As she read the newspapers, she used to think about the passage of the Red Sea, in the Bible; it seemed as if the flood of meanness and greed had been held back just long enough for the boys to go over, and then swept down and engulfed everything that was left at home."
    Note Source: One of Ours Book V, Chap. 19


  58. Bible: Exodus 17:6

  59. Title: Bible: Exodus 17:6
    Note Relating to Cather: In "El Dorado: A Kansas Recessional," Josiah Bywaters was sitting and waiting until water came from the rock, recalling for the reader Moses striking a rock for water in the wilderness.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 306


  60. Bible: Exodus 22:22-24; Deuteronomy 10:18; Psalm 146:9

  61. Title: Bible: Exodus 22:22-24; Deuteronomy 10:18; Psalm 146:9
    Note Relating to Cather: In My Antonia, as he prays over Mr. Shimerda's grave, Josiah Burden calls on God to bless the family with the "promises to the widow and the fatherless."
    Note Source: My Antonia Book I, Chap. 16


  62. Bible: Genesis 1:2

  63. Title: Bible: Genesis 1:2
    Note Relating to Cather: Latour refers to the "Creation morning" as he approaches Acoma in Death Comes for the Archbishop.
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Book III, Chap. 3


  64. Bible: Genesis 12:2-3; 13:15-17; Hebrews 11:8-9; Galations 3:29

  65. Title: Bible: Genesis 12:2-3; 13:15-17; Hebrews 11:8-9; Galations 3:29
    Note Relating to Cather: In Sapphira and the Slave Girl, David Fairhead evokes the promises to the Israelites. Because Jezebel had professed Christianity, she had become "an heir to all the Promises." The Bible contains many iterations of God's promises to Abraham and his descendants.
    Note Source: Sapphira and the Slave Girl Book III, Chap. 3


  66. Bible: Genesis 29:20

  67. Title: Bible: Genesis 29:20
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather quotes Genesis 29:20 in her review of William Knapp's George Borrow: Life and Correspondence
    Note Source: Leader 7/15/1899


  68. Bible: Genesis 3

  69. Title: Bible: Genesis 3
    Note Relating to Cather: In One of Ours, Enid Royce wonders if Claude's advances can be blamed on "Eve's transgression."
    Note Source: One of Ours Book III, Chap. 3


  70. Bible: Genesis 3:24

  71. Title: Bible: Genesis 3:24
    Note Relating to Cather: In One of Ours, Oscar Petersen says that the newspaper report that the British entered Mesopotamia where the Garden of Eden supposedly stood is flatly wrong. God placed "four cherubims with swords to guard the Garden, and there ain't no man going to find it."
    Note Source: One of Ours Book V, Chap. 8


  72. Bible: Genesis 37

  73. Author: 
    Title: Bible: Genesis 37
    Note Relating to Cather: In Sapphira and the Slave Girl, Henry Colbert marks the Biblical passages that he finds with the letter "S."
    Note Source: Sapphira and the Slave Girl Book III, Chap. 3


  74. Bible: Genesis 4:9

  75. Title: Bible: Genesis 4:9
    Note Relating to Cather: In My Antonia, Jim Burden's "grandmother and Jake talked about how easily good Christian people could forget they were their brothers' keepers."
    Note Source: My Antonia Book I, Chap. 10


  76. Bible: Hebrews 13:3

  77. Title: Bible: Hebrews 13:3
    Note Relating to Cather: In Sapphira and the Slave Girl, after Jezebel's funeral Henry Colbert reflects on the verse: "Remember them that are in bonds, as bound with them . . . " and asks himself "were we not all in bonds?"
    Note Source: Sapphira and the Slave Girl Book III, Chap. 3


  78. Bible: I Corinthians 15:52

  79. Author: 
    Title: Bible: I Corinthians 15:52
    Note Relating to Cather: In One of Ours, Evangeline Wheeler answers a question about how quickly the United States can prepare for the war by saying, "In the twinkling of an eye we shall be changed!"
    Note Source: One of Ours Book III, Chap. 6


  80. Bible: I Corinthians 15:52; I Thessalonians 4:16

  81. Title: Bible: I Corinthians 15:52; I Thessalonians 4:16
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Flavia and Her Artists," Jemima Broadwood is of the opinion that Arthur Hamilton will not see the true self of his wife, Flavia, "until the trump sounds." The phrase also appears often in Christian music.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 164


  82. Bible: I Samuel 28:7-25

  83. Title: Bible: I Samuel 28:7-25
    Note Relating to Cather: In A Lost Lady, Niel Herbert wishes he could call up the shade of Marian Forrester as the Witch of Endor called up Samuel's shade.
    Note Source: A Lost Lady Part II, Chap. 9


  84. Bible: James 2

  85. Title: Bible: James 2
    Note Relating to Cather: In One of Ours, Evangeline Wheeler gently chides Claude: "You are trying to get me back to Faith and Works."
    Note Source: One of Ours Book I, Chap. 15


  86. Bible: Jeremiah 15:15

  87. Title: Bible: Jeremiah 15:15
    Note Relating to Cather: After Mr. Shimerda's death in My Antonia, Emmaline Burden whispers to herself: "Lord, Thou knowest."
    Note Source: My Antonia Book I, Chap. 14


  88. Bible: John 11:43

  89. Title: Bible: John 11:43
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Eric Hermannson's Soul," Asa Skinner shouts "Lazarus, come forth!" at the moment of Eric's conversion.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 362


  90. Bible: John 13:1-15

  91. Title: Bible: John 13:1-15
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Old Mrs. Harris," Mandy washes the feet of Mrs. Harris, performing one of the "oldest rites of compassion."
    Note Source: Obscure Destinies 80


  92. Bible: John 19:28

  93. Title: Bible: John 19:28
    Note Relating to Cather: In Death Comes for the Archbishop I, Father Latour, when he fears dying of thirst, recalls Jesus' cry from the cross "I thirst."
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Part I, Chap. 1


  94. Bible: John 21:15

  95. Title: Bible: John 21:15
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Paul's Case," a sampler that said, "Feed my lambs" hung on his wall. His mother had made it.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 248


  96. Bible: Judges 11

  97. Title: Bible: Judges 11
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Song of the Lark II, Dr. Archie is perusing Aurelia S. Larsen's devotional poetry when he observes that ministers' wives like to write poems about "Jepthah's Daughter, Rizpah, David's Lament for Absalom, etc. The doctor found the book very amusing."
    Note Source: The Song of the Lark Book II Chap. 1


  98. Bible: Luke 14:5

  99. Title: Bible: Luke 14:5
    Note Relating to Cather: In One of Ours, when Leonard Dawson wants Claude Wheeler to thresh on Sunday, he says he'll have a talk with Claude's mother to "convince her it's pretty near a case of your neighbour's ox falling into a pit on the Sabbath day."
    Note Source: One of Ours Book III, Chap. I


  100. Bible: Luke 16:19-31

  101. Title: Bible: Luke 16:19-31
    Note Relating to Cather: Jim Burden did not believe that Mr. Shimerda was in torment, as Ambrosch said, but his mind was unsettled about the ideas of punishment. He recalled Dives in torment, but rejected that for Mr. Shimerda. "Mr. Shimerda had not been rich and selfish: he had only been so unhappy that he could not live any longer."
    Note Source: My Antonia Book I, Chap. 14


  102. Bible: Luke 23:39-43; Mark 15:27; Matthew 27:38

  103. Title: Bible: Luke 23:39-43; Mark 15:27; Matthew 27:38
    Note Relating to Cather: In Shadows on the Rock II, Euclide Auclair tells his daughter Cecile the story of Bichet, a Paris thief, reflecting that Jesus would have forgiven Bichet as Jesus did the thief on the cross.
    Note Source: Shadows on the Rock Book II Chap. 5


  104. Bible: Luke 9:48; Matthew 18:4

  105. Author: 
    Title: Bible: Luke 9:48; Matthew 18:4
    Note Relating to Cather: Bishop Latour recalls the words of Jesus when he prays with Sada in the cold December night in Death Comes for the Archbishop: "And whosoever is least among you, the same shall be first in the Kingdom of Heaven.".
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Book VII, Chap. 2


  106. Bible: Mark 9:47; Matthew 18:9

  107. Title: Bible: Mark 9:47; Matthew 18:9
    Note Relating to Cather: After Eric Hermannson's soul is saved, "the gospel of maceration began its work. 'If thine eye offend thee, pluck it out,' et cetera."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 369


  108. Bible: Matthew 10:29-31; Luke 12:6-7

  109. Title: Bible: Matthew 10:29-31; Luke 12:6-7
    Note Relating to Cather: In Sapphira and the Slave Girl, there are two allusions to the verses from the Sermon on the Mount that state that every soul has worth. The first is Mandy Ringer's response to Buck Keyser's whipping Casper Flight and the other to Henry Colbert's prayer for the safety of Rachel Blake and Nancy.
    Note Source: Sapphira and the Slave Girl Book IV, Chap. 2; Book VII, Chap. 2


  110. Bible: Matthew 13:12

  111. Title: Bible: Matthew 13:12
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Bohemian Girl," a tenant says that this seems to be preacher Ericson's favorite text.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 5


  112. Bible: Matthew 13:43

  113. Title: Bible: Matthew 13:43
    Note Relating to Cather: Charlotte Waterford's and Valentine Ramsey's faces are said to shine "like the righteous in his Heavenly Father's house" after their day shopping together for Christmas.
    Note Source: Uncle Valentine and Other Stories 16


  114. Bible: Matthew 16:18-19

  115. Title: Bible: Matthew 16:18-19
    Note Relating to Cather: In Death Comes for the Archbishop, as Father Latour approaches the rock mesa of Acoma, he reflects on Jesus' words to Peter: "upon this rock I will build my church . . . . And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven."
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Book III, Chap. 3


  116. Bible: Matthew 18:12-13

  117. Title: Bible: Matthew 18:12-13
    Note Relating to Cather: The W.C.T.U. president, who wants to reform Douglass Burnham, refers to him as the "hundredth sheep" in "The Treasure of Far Island."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 270


  118. Bible: Matthew 18:3

  119. Title: Bible: Matthew 18:3
    Note Relating to Cather: In Death Comes for the Archbishop, Father Joseph Vaillant thinks that Jesus must have had the Mexicans in mind when he said, "unless ye become as little children."
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Book VII, Chap. 1


  120. Bible: Matthew 18:4

  121. Title: Bible: Matthew 18:4
    Note Relating to Cather: When Bishop Latour prays with Sada in the cold December night in Death Comes for the Archbishop, he likens her to the child that Jesus sets among his listeners, saying that the least is the greatest in heaven.
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Book VII, Chap. 2


  122. Bible: Matthew 2

  123. Author: 
    Title: Bible: Matthew 2
    Note Relating to Cather: In Shadows on the Rock, Cecile Auclair tells Jacques Gaux about the three kings as she sets up the creche.
    Note Source: Shadows on the Rock Book II, Chap. 8


  124. Bible: Matthew 2:13-14

  125. Author: 
    Title: Bible: Matthew 2:13-14
    Note Relating to Cather: In Death Comes for the Archbishop, Father Latour imagines that Father Vaillant would think that the Holy Mother led Father Latour's mare to water as the angel led Joseph, Mary, and Jesus to Egypt.
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Book I, Chap. 2


  126. Bible: Matthew 2:16

  127. Title: Bible: Matthew 2:16
    Note Relating to Cather: In O Pioneers!, Emil Bergson concludes that Frank Shabata would destroy the spirit of music "as Herod slew the innocents."
    Note Source: O Pioneers! Book IV, Chap. 6


  128. Bible: Matthew 24:40-41; Luke 17:34-36

  129. Title: Bible: Matthew 24:40-41; Luke 17:34-36
    Note Relating to Cather: In Sapphira and the Slave Girl, Sapphira Dodderidge Colbert refers to this verse when she hears that Betty Blake has died but Mary has survived.
    Note Source: Sapphira and the Slave Girl Book VIII, Chap. 3


  130. Bible: Matthew 26:11; Mark 14:7; John 12:8

  131. Title: Bible: Matthew 26:11; Mark 14:7; John 12:8
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Song of the Lark, when Thea Kronborg's mother is dying, she tells Dr. Archie, "The children you don't especially need, you have always with you, like the poor. But the bright ones get away from you."
    Note Source: The Song of the Lark Book VI Chap. 3


  132. Bible: Matthew 3:9; Luke 3:8

  133. Title: Bible: Matthew 3:9; Luke 3:8
    Note Relating to Cather: In One of Ours, the words of these passages strike Claude Wheeler as appropriate for the men of the Anchises. They, too, are ordinary men that God will raise to meet their future.
    Note Source: One of Ours Book IV, Chap. 3


  134. Bible: Matthew 5:29; 18:9; Mark 9:47

  135. Title: Bible: Matthew 5:29; 18:9; Mark 9:47
    Note Relating to Cather: All three verses refer to casting out an eye if the other offends. Cather refers to this concept in "Eric Hermannson's Soul" as "the gospel of maceration."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 368


  136. Bible: Matthew 5:44

  137. Title: Bible: Matthew 5:44
    Note Relating to Cather: In My Mortal Enemy, Myra Henshawe tells Nellie Birdseye that forgiving one's enemies is easy; what is difficult is forgiving one's friends.
    Note Source: My Mortal Enemy Book I


  138. Bible: Matthew 5:5

  139. Title: Bible: Matthew 5:5
    Note Relating to Cather: Although Claude Wheeler, in One of Ours, believes in the Sermon on the Mount, he stumbles over the verse "Blessed are the Meek," "until one day he happened to think that this verse was meant exactly for people like Mahailey . . . !"
    Note Source: One of Ours Book I, Chap. 7


  140. Bible: Matthew 5:7

  141. Title: Bible: Matthew 5:7
    Note Relating to Cather: A preacher in the Underground Railroad reassures Rachel Blake that she did right to help Nancy escape by reminding her that the scripture says, "Blessed is the merciful."
    Note Source: Sapphira and the Slave Girl Book VII, Chap. 4


  142. Bible: Matthew 5:8

  143. Title: Bible: Matthew 5:8
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Uncle Valentine," Valentine Ramsay says that certain people can do or be anything and still be "pure in heart," echoing the words of the beautitude.
    Note Source:  Uncle Valentine and Other Stories 14


  144. Bible: Matthew 6:10

  145. Title: Bible: Matthew 6:10
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Professor's House, Godfrey St. Peter makes a play on the words of The Lord's Prayer: "Thy will be done in art, as it is in heaven."
    Note Source: The Professor's House Book I Chap. 5


  146. Bible: Matthew 6:9-13

  147. Title: Bible: Matthew 6:9-13
    Note Relating to Cather: In Death Comes for the Archbishop, Father Latour says the Our Father, an important piece of Christian liturgy, as he and Jacinto camp at Laguna.
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Book III, Chap. 2


  148. Bible: Numbers 20:17

  149. Title: Bible: Numbers 20:17
    Note Relating to Cather: In My Mortal Enemy II, Myra protests "Oh, let me be buried in the king's highway," a reference to Moses' entreaty to the king of Edom to let the Israelites pass through his land.
    Note Source: My Mortal Enemy Book II, Chap. 5


  150. Bible: Proverbs 18:24

  151. Title: Bible: Proverbs 18:24
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Song of the Lark, when Ray Kennedy lies dying, Peter Kronborg refers to "the Friend that sticketh closer than a brother." Kennedy replies, "Christ and me fell out long ago."
    Note Source: My Antonia Book I, Chap. 19


  152. Bible: Proverbs 23:31

  153. Title: Bible: Proverbs 23:31
    Note Relating to Cather: Harvey Merrick, in "The Sculptor's Funeral," is said to have "looked upon the wine when it was red."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 183


  154. Bible: Psalm 101

  155. Title: Bible: Psalm 101
    Note Relating to Cather: Near the end of O Pioneers!, Ivar recites the 101st Psalm to himself.
    Note Source: O Pioneers! Book V, Chap. 1


  156. Bible: Psalm 111:10

  157. Title: Bible: Psalm 111:10
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Treasure of Far Island," when Douglass Burnham's teacher gave Douglass a copy of Camille, he inscribed it thus: "The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 270-1


  158. Bible: Psalm 22:16-20

  159. Title: Bible: Psalm 22:16-20
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Old Beauty," Gabrielle Longstreet de Coucy says that she was "mired down" in "the power of the dog" when Henry Seabury arrives. She refers to the "English Prayer Book." The source is the Bible.
    Note Source: The Old Beauty and Others 48


  160. Bible: Psalm 23

  161. Title: Bible: Psalm 23
    Note Relating to Cather: Claude Wheeler, in One of Ours, recalls the 23rd Psalm, particularly the verse, "He restoreth my soul: he leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for his name's sake." Grandma Harris, in "Old Mrs. Harris," finds comfort in the well-known Psalm, and in Sapphira and the Slave Girl, Sapphira Dodderidge Colbert recites it for Jezebel.
    Note Source: One of Ours Book II, Chap. 4; Obscure Destinies 155; Sapphira and the Slave Girl Book III, Chap. 1


  162. Bible: Psalm 90:4; 2 Peter 3:8

  163. Title: Bible: Psalm 90:4; 2 Peter 3:8
    Note Relating to Cather: "Eric Hermannson's Soul" ends with "the only poetry he had ever read: "And a day shall be as a thousand years, and a thousand years as a day."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 379


  164. Bible: Psalms 104:10-11; 16-18

  165. Title: Bible: Psalms 104:10-11; 16-18
    Note Relating to Cather: Ivar is reading and reciting the Bible when the Bergsons come to see him.
    Note Source: O Pioneers! Book, Chap. 3


  166. Bible: Psalms 16:10

  167. Title: Bible: Psalms 16:10
    Note Relating to Cather: As a teenager, Claude Wheeler ponders the meaning of death and "corruption."
    Note Source: One of Ours Book I, Chap. 7


  168. Bible: Psalms 47:4

  169. Title: Bible: Psalms 47:4
    Note Relating to Cather: As his grandfather was reading the Bible for evening devotions in My Antonia, Jim Burden wondered about the meaning of "Selah."
    Note Source: My Antonia Book I, Chap. 2


  170. Bible: Psalms 58:4-5

  171. Title: Bible: Psalms 58:4-5
    Note Relating to Cather: In My Mortal Enemy, Myra Henshawe says that the "wicked are deaf like the adder," when speaking of her noisy neighbors, the Poindexters.
    Note Source: My Mortal Enemy Book II, Chap. 2


  172. Bible: Psalms 6:3

  173. Title: Bible: Psalms 6:3
    Note Relating to Cather: In "A Night at Greenway Court," as he recalls the English court, M. Maurepas cries, "How long, O Lord, how long?"
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 486


  174. Bible: Revelation 7:13-14

  175. Title: Bible: Revelation 7:13-14
    Note Relating to Cather: Revelation 7:13-14 is the source for Father Latour's reference to the "chapter in the Apocalypse" at Agua Secreta.
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Book I, Chap. 2


  176. A Bit of Old Chelsea

  177. Author: Beringer, Mrs. Oscar
    Title: A Bit of Old Chelsea
    Date: 1898
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather praises Minnie Maddern Fiske's performance.
    Note Source: Courier 12/24/1898


  178. Black Riders

  179. Author: Crane, Stephen
    Title: Black Riders
    Date: 1895
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: "... Black Riders, uneven as it was, was a casket of polished masterpieces when compared with War is Kind.
    Note Source: Leader 6/3/1899


  180. Bleak House

  181. Author: Dickens, Charles
    Title: Bleak House
    Date: 1852-1853
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "After supper Claude lay on the couch in the sitting room, while his mother read aloud to him from 'Bleak House'—one of the few novels she loved."
    Note Source: One of Ours Book I, Chap. 17


  182. "The Blessed Damozel"

  183. Author: Rossetti, Dante Gabriel
    Title: "The Blessed Damozel"
    Date: 1850
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Eric Hermannson's Soul," Margaret Elliot says she "heard" Eric's tears when she sang. See the last stanza of "The Blessed Damozel."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 366


  184. Blix

  185. Author: Norris, Frank
    Title: Blix
    Date: 1900
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In a 1900 Courier article Cather writes: "If you want to read a story that is all wheat and no chaff, read Blix ... there is not a shadow of pedantry or pride of craft in it from cover to cover. Blix herself is the method, the motive and the aim of this book." In an April 1900 Courier article Cather says that it's "as poetic and graceful as McTeague was somber and charmless."
    Note Source: Courier 1/13/1900; Courier 4/7/1900


  186. A Blot in the 'Scutcheon

  187. Author: Browning, Robert
    Title: A Blot in the 'Scutcheon
    Date: 1843
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "Miss Julia Marlowe-Tabor has officially announced that she will next season add A Blot in the 'Scutcheon to her repertoire. If there was any one thing needed to convince the world that Julia Marlowe has no sense of dramatic fitness it was just that one thing. That the play is Browning's only really playable drama is true enough, but the subject matter is so delicate, so painful that many greater actors than Miss Marlowe have considered it impossible."
    Note Source: Journal 2/24/1895


  188. Bohemian Songs

  189. Title: Bohemian Songs
    Genre: song
    Note Relating to Cather: In My Antonia, Antonia "was always singing them queer Bohemia songs...." In "The Bohemian Girl," Johanna Vavrikas sings many Bohemian songs while her neice Clara plays the piano and Joe Vavrika plays the fiddle. In "The Diamond Mine," Blasius Bouchalka says that the publishers, "They not want Bohemian songs. They not want my music. Even the street cars will not stop for me here."
    Note Source: My Antonia Book IV, Chap. 3; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 19; Youth and the Bright Medusa 98; Youth and the Bright Medusa 98


  190. "Bohn's Libraries"

  191. Author: Bohn, Henry George
    Title: "Bohn's Libraries"
    Date: 1846
    Genre:  fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Reprints of European classics, translated into English, if needed. In A Lost Lady, Niel Herbert reads several volumes of the set his uncle owned.
    Note Source: A Lost Lady Book I, Chap. 7


  192. The Bondman

  193. Author: Caine, Hall
    Title: The Bondman
    Date: 1890
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Cather recommended these romances [Hall Craine's The Bondman (1890), The Manxman (1888) and The Deemster (1888)] to the readers of the Home Monthly, but George Seibel remembered that at this time she enjoyed 'despising Marie Corelli and Hall Craine.'"
    Note Source: World and the Parish 1:353


  194. The Book-Bills of Narcissus

  195. Author: Le Gallienne, Richard
    Title: The Book-Bills of Narcissus
    Date: 1895
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Much was forgiven his earlier works, Prose Fancies, The Book-Bills of Narcissus, etc. because they promised better things."
    Note Source: Leader 4/8/1898


  196. The Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and Other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church

  197. Title: The Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and Other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church
    Date: 1662
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In Sapphira and the Slave Girl, both Rachel Blake and Sapphira Dodderidge Colbert read from "the Prayer Book." In "The Old Beauty," Gabrielle Longstreet refers to "the power of the dog." (Psalms 22:20)
    Note Source: Sapphira and the Slave Girl Book I, Chap. 2, Book III, Chap. 1; The Old Beauty and Others 48


  198. The Borderland of Society

  199. Author: Davis, Charles Belmont
    Title: The Borderland of Society
    Date: 1898
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Davis's stories had "a certain grace in the telling, a certain practiced air, and a quiet faculty for getting at the heart of things that made them difficult to forget."
    Note Source: Leader 1/20/1899


  200. Bouvard et Pecuchet

  201. Author: Flaubert, Gustave
    Title: Bouvard et Pecuchet
    Date: 1881
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather discusses Flaubert's works with his niece Madame Franklin Grout.
    Note Source: Not Under Forty 17


  202. A Boy's Will

  203. Author: Frost, Robert
    Title: A Boy's Will
    Date: 1913
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather considers A Boy's Will better than North of Boston.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #323


  204. The Boy David

  205. Author: Barrie, James M.
    Title: The Boy David
    Date: 1936
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Best to read I and II Samuel before reading Barrie's The Boy David.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1435


  206. The Bridge of San Luis Rey

  207. Author: Wilder, Thornton
    Title: The Bridge of San Luis Rey
    Date: 1927
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Enjoyed Wilder's The Bridge of San Luis Rey.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #944


  208. The Brimming Cup

  209. Author: Fisher, Dorothy Canfield
    Title: The Brimming Cup
    Date: 1921
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather tells Fisher to "enjoy the proceeds."
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather 558


  210. "The Brother and Sister"

  211. Author: Kunos, Ignacz
    Title: "The Brother and Sister"
    Date: 1913
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In Alexander's Bridge, Bartley Alexander compares himself to "the little boy [who] drank of the prettiest brook in the forest and he became a stag." This tale can be found in Forty-Four Turkish Fairy Tales.
    Note Source: Alexander's Bridge Chap. 8


  212. Brother John

  213. Author: Morton, Martha
    Title: Brother John
    Date: 1894
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "In this wicked and perverse generation plays like Brother John and actors like William H. Crane are restful and wholesome. They are realistic with the realism of good and remind one that realism after all may not be an absolute synonym for evil.... As for the play itself, it is the work of a very clever woman and a very poor playwright.... Women can paint pictures and write novels, but never while the world stands will a woman mould a great statue or write a great play."
    Note Source: Journal 4/5/1894


  214. "Bryan, Bryan, Bryan, Bryan"

  215. Author: Lindsay, Vachel
    Title: "Bryan, Bryan, Bryan, Bryan"
    Date: 1919
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: The poem chronicles William Jennings Bryan's 1896 presidential campaign from the perspective of an idealistic youth; it contains the line "Bidding the eagles of the West fly on," the epigraph and title for Book V of One of Ours.
    Note Source: One of Ours


  216. "The Building of the Ship"

  217. Author: Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth
    Title: "The Building of the Ship"
    Date: 1851
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In One of Ours, an "old clergyman" watching the Anchises sailing away "began solemnly to quote from a poet who in his time was still popular": "Thou, too, sail on, O Ship of State." (Cather quotes lines 376 and 378-80; she skips "Sail on, O UNION, strong and great!")
    Note Source: One of Ours Part IV, Chap. 2


  218. Bulletin of St. Ansgar's Scandinavian Catholic League of New York

  219. Author: Undset, Sigrid
    Title: Bulletin of St. Ansgar's Scandinavian Catholic League of New York
    Date: Feb. 1943
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather has read Undset's retelling of Floamanna Saga twice. She marvels at the courage of early Norse explorers.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1625


  220. "Bury me not on the lone Prairee"

  221. Title: "Bury me not on the lone Prairee"
    Genre: song
    Note Relating to Cather: The original tune was "The Ocean Burial" composed by George N. Allen, and the first line reads: "O! bury me not in the deep, deep sea." In My Antonia, Otto Fuchs sings the cowboy version.
    Note Source: My Antonia Book I, Chap. 9


  222. By Order of the King

  223. Author: Hugo, Victor
    Title: By Order of the King
    Date: 1869
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: On The Man Who Laughs, or ("as it is sometimes called") By Order of the King: "even Hugo's warmest admirers find it hard to forgive him the gratuitous unpleasantness of that book."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 2/1898


  224. By the Aurelian Wall and Other Elegies

  225. Author: Carman, Bliss
    Title: By the Aurelian Wall and Other Elegies
    Date: 1898
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1898 Leader article, Cather enjoyed Carmen's By the Aurelian Wall and Other Elegies when she writes: "These songs are not so much of the great dead as the dear dead, and therein lies much of their spontaneity and charm." In a 1902 Gazette article, Cather writes that she enjoyed Carman's By the Aurelian Wall and Other Elegies: "Of his several volumes the one entitled By the Aurelian Wall is the most uniformly excellent and is entirely free from the touch of bravado and willful frivolity which detracted from much of his earlier work."
    Note Source: Leader 7/22/1898; Gazette 11/30/1902


    "Ca' the Yowes to the knowes"

  1. Author: Burns, Robert
    Title: "Ca' the Yowes to the knowes"
    Date: 1794
    Genre: song
    Note Relating to Cather: Thea sings this "old air" for Dr. Archie in The Song of the Lark.
    Note Source: Song of the Lark Part VI, Chap. 9


  2. "Caius Marius"

  3. Author: Plutarch (Mestrius Plutarchus)
    Title: "Caius Marius"
    Date: 75 CE
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather:  At the very end of both "Flavia and Her Artists," and "The Way of the World," the situation of the major character of the story is compared to that Caius Marius as he "sat among the ruins of Carthage."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 172; 404


  4. Camille

  5. Author: Dumas fils, Alexandre
    Title: Camille
    Date: 1848
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather writes in a Hesperian review: "A great play is a great experience. To have seen Clara Morris as Camille is an experience not to be regarded lightly or soon forgotten." In "A Death in the Desert," Katherine Gaylord likens her coughing entrance to meet Everett Hilgarde as "the traditional Camille entrance, and in "The Treasure of Far Island" Douglass Burnham's Sunday School teacher once put a copy of Camille on the church Christmas tree for Douglass. In My Antonia, Jim Burden and Lena Lingard are entranced by a dramatic production of Camille. In a 1901 Journal article, Cather writes that she saw Sarah Bernhardt's performance of Camille at the end of her 1901 D.C. season.
    Note Source: Hesperian 12/1/1893; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 205; 270-1; My Antonia Book III, Chap. 3; Journal 2/4/1901


  6. "The Captain's Vices"

  7. Author: Coppee, Francois
    Title: "The Captain's Vices"
    Date: 1890
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "One of the most musical of poets, the most delightful of story tellers"; "M. Coppee is best known in this country by his short stories, 'The Substitute,' 'Two Clowns,' 'The Captain's Vices' [in Ten Tales] and his perfect little romance, 'The Rivals.'"
    Note Source: Journal 2/17/1895


  8. Captains Courageous

  9. Author: Kipling, Rudyard
    Title: Captains Courageous
    Date: 1896
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1897 Home Monthly article Cather writes: "Rudyard Kipling's latest novel, Captains Courageous, is a book that every American boy and every American father should read." In an 1899 Courier article Cather writes: "Had Captains Courageous and The Day's Work been his first productions they would have made, doubtless, a noise in the world, but they would not have done for their author what Plain Tales from the Hills and Soldiers Three did."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 12/1897; Courier 4/4/1899


  10. "Casabianca"

  11. Author: Hemans, Felicia Dorothea
    Title: "Casabianca"
    Date: 1826
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather alludes to "the exemplary youth in Mrs. Hemans' celebrated poem" in a piece on William Wetmore Story.
    Note Source: Leader 1/28/1898


  12. Casa Braccio

  13. Author: Crawford, F. Marion
    Title: Casa Braccio
    Date: 1894
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather calls it the "really excellent story Marion Crawford has just spoiled in the Century."
    Note Source: Courier 9/21/1895


  14. Cashel Byron's Profession

  15. Author: Shaw, George Bernard
    Title: Cashel Byron's Profession
    Date: 1882
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Calls Shaw's Cashel Byron's Profession "a novelized drama."
    Note Source: Leader 11/25/1899


  16. The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference

  17. Author: Hebermann, Charles G., ed.
    Title: The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference
    Date: 1907-12
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Source for Death Comes for the Archbishop
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay" 349-50


  18. Cato

  19. Author: Addison, Joseph
    Title: Cato
    Date: 1713
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Play based on the life of Cato the Younger; Thea reads Cato's speech on immortality at school in Moonstone.
    Note Source: Song of the Lark Part I, Chap. 14


  20. The Charity Ball

  21. Author: Belasco, David
    Title: The Charity Ball
    Date: 1889
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "The Charity Ball itself, like most American dramas, is only the shadow of a play."
    Note Source: Journal 1/6/1895


  22. The Cherry Orchard

  23. Author: Chekhov, Anton
    Title: The Cherry Orchard
    Date: 1904
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather recommends that Sergeant read The Cherry Orchard.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #249


  24. Childe Harold's Pilgrimage

  25. Author: Byron, George Gordon
    Title: Childe Harold's Pilgrimage
    Date: 1812-1818
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Song of the Lark, Thea sees the Dying Gladiator in the Chicago Art museum: "the Dying Gladiator she had read about in 'Childe Harold' almost as long ago as she could remember." He is described in Canto 4, stanza 140 of Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. In Song of the Lark, Thea reads this "book of Byron's poems" as a young girl, and particularly likes "My native land, good-night" (Canto 1, stanza 13) and "There was a sound of revelry" (Canto 4, stanza 21). In O Pioneers, Emil "seemed intent upon his own thoughts, and, like the Gladiator's, they were far away." The Dying Gladiator appears in Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, Canto 4, stanza 140.
    Note Source: Song of the Lark Part II, Chap. 5; Song of the Lark Part I, Chap. 2; O Pioneers! Part II, Chap. 1


  26. Children of the Mist

  27. Author: Phillpotts, Eden
    Title: Children of the Mist
    Date: 1898
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1899 Courier article Cather writes: "His book is full-blooded, free from literary affectations, lusty and wholesome and full of joy in out-of-door life ..." In a 1901 Courier article Cather says that Children of the Mist "convinced all critical readers that a new man had entered the ranks of the great English novelists."
    Note Source: Courier 9/16/1899; Courier 8/10/1901


  28. The Chimes of Normandy

  29. Author: Farnie, H.B. and R. Reece
    Title: The Chimes of Normandy
    Date: 1878
    Genre: song
    Note Relating to Cather: All her life, Cather appreciated the opera she was able to see and hear in Nebraska: "What good luck for a country child to hear those tuneful old operas sung by people who were doing their best: The Bohemian Girl, The Chimes of Normandy, Martha, The Mikado."
    Note Source: World-Herald 10/27/1929


  30. A Christmas Carol

  31. Author: Dickens, Charles
    Title: A Christmas Carol
    Date: 1843
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Reread "A Christmas Carol." Likes it but does not like all of Dickens.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1623


  32. Church Symbolism as Illustrated in Grace Episcopal Church, Amherst, Massachusetts

  33. Author: Whicher, Harriet Fox (Mrs. George Whicher)
    Title: Church Symbolism as Illustrated in Grace Episcopal Church, Amherst, Massachusetts
    Date: 1945
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Enjoyed Whicher's book on church symbolism.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1727


  34. Cleopatra

  35. Author: Sardou, Victorien
    Title: Cleopatra
    Date: 1891
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1897 Journal article, Cather reviewed Fanny Davenport's productions of several plays by Victorien Sardou: Fedora, La Tosca, Cleopatra, Madame Sans Gene, and Gismonda: "And there is only one Sardou. The matronly Fanny Davenport has been giving him to us all week and he is just as great as ever — in spite of Fanny." In an 1895 Courier article, Cather review of Lillian Lewis as Shakespeare's Cleopatra: "I wish it had been Sardou's Cleopatra that Miss Lewis played, for, compared to Shakespeare's it is cheap and tawdry, it has less beauty to mar, less dignity to lose."
    Note Source: Journal 1/31/1897; Courier 10/26/1895


  36. The Cliff Dwellers of the Mesa Verde

  37. Author: Nordenskiold, Gustaf
    Title: The Cliff Dwellers of the Mesa Verde
    Date: 1893
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "One source Cather used [for The Professor's House] was Gustaf Nordenskiold's The Cliff Dwellers of the Mesa Verde (1893), which she cites in the article she wrote for the Denver Times (31 January 1916) soon after her visit to Mesa Verde."
    Note Source: The Professor's House Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay" 309


  38. The Coast of Bohemia

  39. Author: Howells, William Dean
    Title: The Coast of Bohemia
    Date: 1893
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather calls The Coast of Bohemia "that feeble tale."
    Note Source: Journal 7/14/1895


  40. Colombe's Birthday

  41. Author: Browning, Robert
    Title: Colombe's Birthday
    Date: 1844
    Genre: verse drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cater describes Julia Marlowe's production


  42. The Columbiad

  43. Author: Barlow, Joel
    Title: The Columbiad
    Date: 1807
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In comments on the theory that "Lord Bacon was the author of the Elizabethan Age," Cather mentions "the awful epic on America entitled The Columbiad, which was perpetrated somewhere about the beginning of this century.
    Note Source: Journal 11/4/1894


  44. Commentaries on the Gallic War

  45. Author: Caesar, Julius
    Title: Commentaries on the Gallic War
    Date: 58-44 BC
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In Song of the Lark, Thea "had been interested in Caesar's 'Commentaries' when she left school to begin teaching, and she loved to read about great generals; but these facts would scarcely explain her wanting that grim bald head ["a photograph of the Naples bust of Julius Caesar"] to share her daily existence." There are many allusions to Caesar's Commentaries throughout Cather's work. For instance, see Chapter 3 in Alexander's Bridge. In One of Ours, Barclay Owens studies Caesar and he and his fortifications and maps are referred to as Caesar and Caesar's. Tom Outland reads Caesar, also. In "The Joy of Nellie Dean," the narrator likens Guy Franklin to the merchants in Caesar who brought into Gaul "those things which effeminate the mind." In an article in the Courier, Cather writes about explorer Fridtjof Nansen: "There was something in his terseness and economy of verbiage that recalled the Commentaries of Caesar."
    Note Source: Song of the Lark Part II, Chap. 2; Alexander's Bridge Chap. 3; One of Ours Book V, Chap. 8, 15, 18; The Professor's House Book I, Chap. 10, Book II, Chap. 1; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 60; Courier 12/18/1897


  46. Confessions

  47. Author: Heine, Heinrich
    Title: Confessions
    Date: 1854
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1897 Courier article, Cather quotes from the "Confessions" in a piece on objections to a statue of Heine in Brooklyn's Prospect Park. In an 1898 Courier article, Cather quotes from the "Confessions" in a piece on the young runaway Adelaide Mould, daughter of the comic opera star Marion Manola. In "Double Birthday," Dr. Albert Engelhardt protests about Marguerite Thiesinger's illness with the line "God is a grimmer humorist than I. Nobody but God could have perpetrated anything so cruel." March (348) suggests that this alludes to a passage near the end of Heine's Confessions. In an 1896 Journal article, Cather quotes a passage in an essay on various stage adaptations of Scenes de la vie de Boheme by Henri Murger.
    Note Source: Courier 11/6/1897; Courier 2/19/1898; Uncle Valentine and Other Stories 53; Journal 4/5/1896


  48. Author: Rousseau, Jean Jacques
    Title: Confessions
    Date: 1781; 1788
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Count of Crow's Nest," Helena de Koch proposes that Rosseau's Confessions keep him popular, that scandal enhances a man's reputation.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 465


  49. Coriolanus

  50. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: Coriolanus
    Date: 1623
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Way of the World," the narrator compares Mary Eliza Jenkins's behavior to that of Coriolanus's when he deserted Rome to join the Volscians.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 403


  51. The Corsican Brothers

  52. Author: Dumas pere, Alexandre
    Title: The Corsican Brothers
    Date: 1845
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather fondly remembers a stage adaptation of The Corsican Brothers from her childhood.
    Note Source: World-Herald 10/27/1929


  53. The Cossacks

  54. Author: Tolstoy, Leo
    Title: The Cossacks
    Date: 1863
    Genre: novel
    Note Relating to Cather: In a letter to H.L. Mencken, "Cather writes that when she was fourteen she came upon four of Tolstoy's works—Anna Karenina, The Cossacks, The Death of Ivan Ilyich, and The Kreutzer Sonata—and for the next three years read them over and over again. She says that this reading so strongly colored the way she saw her own world in America that she eventually turned to a long apprenticeship with Henry James and Mrs. Wharton to get over it. Yet in writing O Pioneers!, she wonders if she has really recovered from the Russian influence."
    Note Source: O Pioneers! Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay" 291


  55. The Countess Valeska

  56. Author: Stratz, Rudolph
    Title: The Countess Valeska
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather writes that this "romantic drama from the German of Rudolph Stratz" is "well made. The plot is well developed, the action is swift, the situations are picturesque and dramatic. But the trouble with all these exciting situations is that they do not excite."
    Note Source: Courier 1/28/1899


  57. The Count of Monte Cristo

  58. Author: Dumas pere, Alexandre
    Title: The Count of Monte Cristo
    Date: 1844-46
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In My Antonia, Jim Burden mentions having "seen James O'Neill play" a dramatization in Lincoln. In a 1929 World-Herald article, Cather fondly remembers a stage adaptation of The Count of Monte Cristo from her childhood.
    Note Source: My Antonia Book III, Chap. 3; World-Herald 10/27/1929


  59. A Country Doctor

  60. Author: Jewett, Sarah Orne
    Title: A Country Doctor
    Date: 1884
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "I [George Seibel] was fonder of Mary E. Wilkins and her New England Nun, but Willa preferred the austere and unsentimental Country Doctor.
    Note Source: Willa Cather Remembered17


  61. The Country Girl

  62. Author: Daly, Augustin
    Title: The Country Girl
    Date: 1884
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather critiqued Ada Rehan's performance in Augustin Daly's production of The Country Girl: "The Country Girl is, of course, just doughty old Wycherley's Country Wife [1675], expurgated first by David Garrick and sterilized and refined by Augustin Daly."
    Note Source: Courier 3/5/1898


  63. The Country of the Pointed Firs

  64. Author: Jewett, Sarah Orne
    Title: The Country of the Pointed Firs
    Date: 1910; 1927
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather gave George Seibel a copy of Jewett's The Country of the Pointed Firs and later wrote a preface to it.
    Note Source: Willa Cather Remembered 17; The Country of the Pointed Firs preface


  65. Country Wife

  66. Author: Wycherley, William
    Title: Country Wife
    Date: 1675
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Reviewed Ada Rehan in Augustin Daly's production of The Country Girl: "The Country Girl is, of course, just doughty old Wycherley's Country Wife [1675], expurgated first by David Garrick and sterilized and refined by Augustin Daly."
    Note Source: Courier 3/5/1898


  67. The Court of Boyville

  68. Author: White, William Allen
    Title: The Court of Boyville
    Date: 1899
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: On the story collection The Court of Boyville: "Mr. White seems not to have forgotten how it feels to be a boy"; Cather particularly notes "The King of Boyville" and "Martyrdom of 'Mealy.'"
    Note Source: Home Monthly 12/1897


  69. The Courtship of Miles Standish

  70. Author: Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth
    Title: The Courtship of Miles Standish
    Date: 1858
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather comments on The Maid of Plymouth, an opera based on The Courtship of Miles Standish: "there seems to be a peculiar fatality about the story of Miles Standish. He doesn't seem to work up well in prose or verse. Probably Mr. Longfellow killed him thoroughly some years ago, along with English hexameter."
    Note Source: Journal 2/11/1894


  71. Cousin Pons

  72. Author: Balzac, Honore de
    Title: Cousin Pons
    Date: 1847
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1898 article in the Courier, Cather writes: "[Alphonse Daudet] left no novel which, in days to come, will carry the conviction and power of Notre Coeur or Madame Bovary or Cousin Pons." In an 1894 article in the Journal, in comments on University's staging of Plautus' Captivi, Cather writes: "Mr. Tucker's Ergasilus was nearer like Balzac's Cousin Pons than anything else, and his conception is the conception of Plautus himself. It is a type of gastronomic idealization which could only have existed in the Rome of Plautus and the Paris of Balzac, where artificial tastes had reached undisputed exaltation."
    Note Source: Courier 1/22/1898; Journal 2/17/1894


  73. Creative Evolution

  74. Author: Bergson, Henri
    Title: Creative Evolution
    Date: 1907
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather considers the first two sections of Bergson's Creative Evolution "splendid."
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #242


  75. The Crime of Sylvester Bonnard

  76. Author: France, Anatole
    Title: The Crime of Sylvester Bonnard
    Date: 1890
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: According to a "Historical Essay," it is written: "In her journalistic days she had highly recommended to her readers [Anatole] France's The Crime of Sylvester Bonnard and lauded his election to the French Academy. She also had praised his novel Thais, and her Pittsburgh friend George Seibel remembered that they had read together France's Le Lys Rouge (The Red Lily)." In an 1897 Home Monthly article, Cather writes: "There is another French book I would like to recommend to everyone — particularly to those who care for quiet fiction of the reflective style. It is The Crime of Sylvestre Bonnard, by M. Anatole France.... It is the story of an old bookworm who has a little girl left on his hands and of how he 'brings her up.'"
    Note Source: The Professor's House Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay" 321; Home Monthly 3/1897


  77. "The Crooked Fir"

  78. Author: Austin, Mary
    Title: "The Crooked Fir"
    Date: 1920
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather was "pleased" with Austin's article in El Palacio.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #517


  79. "Cross of Gold"

  80. Author: Bryan, William Jennings
    Title: "Cross of Gold"
    Date: 1896
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Two Friends," the final line of Bryan's "Cross of Gold" speech was given as "You shall not press this crown of thorns upon the brow of labour; you shall not crucity mankind upon a cross of gold."
    Note Source: Obscure Destinies 184-5


  81. Cuba in War Time

  82. Author: Davis, Richard Harding
    Title: Cuba in War Time
    Date: 1897
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather says it has a "certain supercilious air of the man who stood off afar and watched the battle and suffered because his linen was not clean."
    Note Source: Leader 6/17/1899


  83. "The Culprit Fay"

  84. Author: Drake, Joseph Rodman
    Title: "The Culprit Fay"
    Date: 1819
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Jack-a-Boy," finding acorns and cattails in the city is likened to finding the Culprit Fay.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 318


  85. Cymbeline

  86. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: Cymbeline
    Date: 1623
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1894 Journal article, Cather writes about Lillian Lewis's plans to play Imogen: "If it were only some other Shakespearean play, but Imogen is familiar to so few people and has been played by so few actresses, that she is rather uncontaminated as yet, and seems almost like a dream which is so much Shakespeare's own that it hardly belongs to the world yet. She is so cold and sad and remote from all the raving, ranting women of France whom Lillian loves that it seems a pity....I hope I shall never see Lillian play it." Cather reviewed Margaret Mather in Shakespeare's Cymbeline for the Journal in 1897: "But O, the play; such a rambling, stringing together of impossible incidents, such unnecessary slaughter, such barbarous taste.... From reading the play you caught no adequate idea of how absurd it appears when presented."
    Note Source: Journal 2/25/1894; Journal 3/7/1897


  87. Cyrano de Bergerac

  88. Author: Rostand, Edmond
    Title: Cyrano de Bergerac
    Date: 1899
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In 1899 Courier article Cather writes: "Undoubtedly the conservatives are right in saying that this is a play of embellishments, of accessories. Even the famous nose itself is but an accessory, a trick of make-up, a foil for the romantic and chivalrous soul which it disguised. Yet is not the very fact that this play is so entirely a play, that it calls out all the resources of the modern theatre, makes such demands upon the costumer, the scenic painter, the property man, the gas man, and at the same time exhibits high literary quality the most encouraging feature about it?.... henceforth this Cyrano de Bergerac will stand for these pent-up souls and thwarted passions; for the prima donnas born without voices, the mothers who die childless, the lovers who never speak, the painters who are color-blind, the cross-eyed Aphrodites, and heaven knows the world is full of these victims of nature's unkindness." In a September 1899 Courier Cather writes: "One of the most daring innovations ... was its long list of dramatis personae."
    Note Source: Courier 4/15/1899. See also Willa Cather Remembered 18; Courier 9/16/1899


    The Damnation of Theron Ware

  1. Author: Frederic, Harold
    Title: The Damnation of Theron Ware
    Date: 1899
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "The first two hundred pages ... are as good as anything in American fiction, much better than most of it."
    Note Source: Leader 6/10/1899


  2. Damon and Pythias

  3. Author: Edwards, Richard
    Title: Damon and Pythias
    Date: 1564
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "We got the old plays in the same way done by living people, and often by people who were quite in earnest. My Partner, The Corsican Brothers, Ingomar, Damon and Pythias, The Count of Monte Cristo. (See The World and the Parish II 956)
    Note Source: World-Herald 10/27/1929


  4. Dans les nuages

  5. Author: Bernhardt, Sarah
    Title: Dans les nuages
    Date: 1878
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1896 Journal article on tenor Italo Campanini, Cather quotes "that one unique book of hers." In an 1895 Journal article, Cather writes: "It is the kind of book one might expect from the woman who paints her own portraits, models her own face and carries offerings of flowers to her sarcophagus out in Pere-Lachaise, where her divine form will one day slumber."
    Note Source: Journal 12/6/1896; Journal 7/14/1895


  6. The Daughter of the Vine

  7. Author: Atherton, Gertrude
    Title: The Daughter of the Vine
    Date: 1899
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Ah, we thought we had been punished enough for ever having countenanced the psychological novel, but our real punishment is now, when the ladies have taken up the war cry. I suppose that Mrs. Atherton, whose fervid pen once labored solely in the interests of love and longing, now loses sleep over character development and comparative values and unity of structure and all the rest of it."
    Note Source: Leader 4/22/1899


  8. David Balfour

  9. Author: Stevenson, Robert Louis
    Title: David Balfour
    Date: 1893
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "It is probable that before the advancement of encroaching realism and 'veritism' and all other literary unpleasantness Stevenson will be relegated to the children's bookshelves, along with Scott and Cooper and the elder Dumas....Prince Otto is so seldom mentioned by people whose business it is to mention books that it may be very bad taste to like it. But it has a few very staunch admirers and ought to have many more.... It is not the finished book that The Master of Ballentrae or David Balfour is, but anyone who has read and liked [Alphonse] Daudet's Kings in Exile [1879] will find in Prince Otto deep and lasting pleasure."
    Note Source: Journal 12/23/1894


  10. David Copperfield

  11. Author: Dickens, Charles
    Title: David Copperfield
    Date: 1850
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In a Journal review, Cather writes, in the context of comments on Brother John by Martha Morton: "The youthful lovers of David Copperfield and Arthur Pendennis, Esq., are only funny because they were so desperately serious.... It is the laughter and reckless gaiety that makes the first act of Camille so horribly pathetic, the seriousness of the poor inventor that makes [Edward E. Kidder's comedy] The Poor Relation so funny." In an 1897 Home Monthly article, Cather writes: "Of Dickens' books I like that one [David Copperfield] best."
    Note Source: Journal 12/9/1894; Home Monthly 5/1897


  12. David Grieve

  13. Author: Ward, Mary (Mrs. Humphry Ward)
    Title: David Grieve
    Date: 1892
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Don't read Sir George Tressady, Mrs. Humphry Ward's latest novel. It's not a Christian duty, and it will bore you to death. It is slower and more tedious than Marcella, and there is no point to it when you are done with it.... If you want to read Mrs. Ward, take up David Grieve [1892] again.... The childhood of David and his sister is done with a strong comprehensive touch that recalls George Eliot's matchless treatment of little Tom and Maggie Tulliver."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 5/1897


  14. The Day's Work

  15. Author: Kipling, Rudyard
    Title: The Day's Work
    Date: 1898
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1899 Courier article Cather writes: "No man has ever written more persistently or more vividly of the affairs which engage the daily life of men," but "Mr. Kipling's experimental playfulness of mood seems to have affected his workmanship." In an 1899 Courier article Cather writes:"Had Captains Courageous and The Day's Work been his first productions they would have made, doubtless, a noise in the world, but they would not have done for their author what Plain Tales from the Hills and Soldiers Three did.
    Note Source: Courier 4/4/1899; Courier 4/4/1899


  16. The Day of Glory

  17. Author: Dorothy Canfield Fisher
    Title: The Day of Glory
    Date: 1919
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Janis P. Stout asserts that Cather's depiction of French culture and society during the Great Was was significantly shaped by her reading of Fisher's Home Fires in France and The Day of Glory." (See Janis Stout "The Making of Willa Cather's One of Ours: The Role of Dorothy Canfield Fisher." War, Literature amd the Arts 11.2 (1999): 48-50)
    Note Source: One of Ours "Historical Essay" Scholarly Edition 650


  18. Dead Man's Rock

  19. Author: Quiller-Couch, Arthur
    Title: Dead Man's Rock
    Date: 1887
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "For the most part [mystery stories] are read and thrown aside and forgotten as quickly as a puzzle that is solved, for they contain none of the elements of lasting satisfaction. Of course there are notable exceptions. ... there is a queer compound of undeniable brilliancy and very patent trashiness, Dead Man's Rock, the first and very uneven production of Mr. [Arthur] Quiller-Couch's early youth."
    Note Source: Journal 3/22/1896


  20. Dear Folks at Home: The Glorious Story of the United States Marines in France as Told by Their Letters from the Battlefield

  21. Title: Dear Folks at Home: The Glorious Story of the United States Marines in France as Told by Their Letters from the Battlefield
    Date: 1919
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: A likely source for One of Ours.
    Note Source: One of Ours "Historical Essay" Scholarly Edition 652


  22. "Death and Doctor Hornbook"

  23. Author: Burns, Robert
    Title: "Death and Doctor Hornbook"
    Date: 1787
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Dr. Archie "loved the poetry of Robert Burns," especially "Death and Dr. Hornbook."
    Note Source: Song of the Lark Part I, Chap. 12


  24. Death in the Afternoon

  25. Author: Hemingway, Ernest
    Title: Death in the Afternoon
    Date: 1932
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather praises Hemingway's Death in the Afternoon.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1135


  26. "A Death in the Desert"

  27. Author: Browning, Robert
    Title: "A Death in the Desert"
    Date: 1864
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather's story "A Death in the Desert" owes its name to Browning's poem.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 199-217


  28. The Death of Ivan Ilyich

  29. Author: Tolstoy, Leo
    Title: The Death of Ivan Ilyich
    Date: 1886
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In a letter to H.L. Mencken, "Cather writes that when she was fourteen she came upon four of Tolstoy's works—Anna Karenina, The Cossacks, The Death of Ivan Ilyich, and The Kreutzer Sonata—and for the next three years read them over and over again. She says that this reading so strongly colored the way she saw her own world in America that she eventually turned to a long apprenticeship with Henry James and Mrs. Wharton to get over it. Yet in writing O Pioneers!, she wonders if she has really recovered from the Russian influence."
    Note Source: O Pioneers! Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay" 291


  30. The Deemster

  31. Author: Caine, Hall
    Title: The Deemster
    Date: 1888
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Cather recommended these romances [Hall Craine's The Bondman (1890), The Manxman (1888) and The Deemster (1888)] to the readers of the Home Monthly, but George Seibel remembered that at this time she enjoyed 'despising Marie Corelli and Hall Craine.'"
    Note Source: World and the Parish 1:353


  32. The Deepening Stream

  33. Author: Fisher, Dorothy Canfield
    Title: The Deepening Stream
    Date: 1930
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather praises Fisher's novel The Deepening Stream and compares it to the Song of the Lark. The latter tells too much. She also distinguishes between first and third person novels.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1027


  34. Degeneration

  35. Author: Nordau, Max
    Title: Degeneration
    Date: 1892
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: On the "descent of literature": "It makes one think of Nordau and his 'Dusk of the Nations.'"
    Note Source: Courier 11/16/1895


  36. The Deluge

  37. Author: Sienkiewicz, Henryk
    Title: The Deluge
    Date: 1891
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Calls Quo Vadis? a "powerful, remarkable book," but less "meritorious" than his other work: With Fire and Sword, The Deluge, Pan Michael, Without Dogma, and "several others," translated from Polish into English by Jeremiah Curtin.
    Note Source: Home Monthly 2/1898


  38. "Den Lille Botsmannen"

  39. Title: "Den Lille Botsmannen"
    Genre: song
    Note Relating to Cather: Alexandra Bergson asks Emil if he recalls the folk song about a ship boy, probably referring to "The Little Sailor."
    Note Source: O Pioneers! Part IV, Chap. 3


  40. The Devil's Disciple

  41. Author: Shaw, George Bernard
    Title: The Devil's Disciple
    Date: 1897
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Calls the play "eccentric" like Arms and the Man, and continues: "The first act of The Devil's Disciple is sane, serious, rational, and constructed by the most approved methods. The scapegrace son returns to the stony bosom of his Puritan family, whose narrowness and selfishness and pretentious piety long ago sent him to the devil.... But in the third act Mr. Shaw leaps gaily into the domain of travesty and all his unbridled freakishness breaks out.... The worst of it is one always has a dark suspicion that this gaily inconsistent Mr. Shaw is not really so inconsistent after all; that his insanity is really the hardest kind of sense, that he only mocks at life because it is too sad and too sordid for tears.... In this play Mr. Shaw may let his serious motif fritter out in a comic opera air because he believes that the most exalted life-dramas usually end in a farce."
    Note Source: Leader 3/29/1898


  42. Diana's Hunting

  43. Author: Buchanan, Robert
    Title: Diana's Hunting
    Date: 1895
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In one of her weekly columns for the Journal during 1896, Cather observes that "It is strange that from Felicia down, the stage novel has never been a success....The last and best of these futile attempts is by Robert Buchanan and is called Diana's Hunting."
    Note Source: Journal 3/29/1896


  44. Diana of the Crossways

  45. Author: Meredith, George
    Title: Diana of the Crossways
    Date: 1885
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "It is a rather strong and beautiful thing, that bond of sympathy which exists between women who are tired of men and very young women who known nothing of them except by hearsay.... It is about the only kind of friendship possible between women, and of course when reduced to the last analysis it is possible only because of their unconscious attitude toward men. The eternal fact of sex seems to be at the bottom of everything. But after people have ceased to seek for love there is one thing that they seem to go on seeking for, and that is sympathy"; Diana of the Crossways is one of very few texts to offer a "true and possible presentation of the case."
    Note Source: Journal 5/12/1895


  46. "Die Lorelei"

  47. Author: Heine, Heinrich
    Title: "Die Lorelei"
    Date: 1823
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Song of the Lark, Harsanyi gives Thea "Die Lorelei" to sing.
    Note Source: The Song of the Lark Book II, Chap. 4


  48. Differences

  49. Author: White, Hervey
    Title: Differences
    Date: 1899
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: George Seibel writes of Cather's "habit of bringing along books by new men -- there was Differences, a first novel by Hervey White, for whom we predicted great things which never came to pass."
    Note Source: World and the Parish 2:693


  50. "The Distinction of Our Poetry"

  51. Author: Daskam, Josephine Doge
    Title: "The Distinction of Our Poetry"
    Date: 1901
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Of Daskam, Cather says, "There is ... nothing of the flippancy we are wont to expect from a young author whose productivity taxes the resources of publishers' presses, but every evidence of deep insight and mature judgment."
    Note Source: Gazette 11/30/1902


  52. A Distinguished Provincial in Paris

  53. Author: Balzac, Honore de
    Title: A Distinguished Provincial in Paris
    Date: 1839
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Song of the Lark, as Dr. Archie is reading A Distinguished Provincial in Paris, he explains to Thea that "A Frenchman undertook to write about a whole cityful of people, all the kinds he knew. And he got them nearly all in, I guess. Yes, it's very interesting. You'll like to read it some day, when you're grown up."
    Note Source: Song of the Lark Part I, Chap. 6


  54. The Divine Comedy

  55. Author: Dante Alighieri
    Title: The Divine Comedy
    Date: 1308-1321
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In a letter to Sergeant, Cather compares the heat felt by lovers in Dante to the heat of Nebraska. In My Antonia, Gaston Cleric reads Dante one night to Jim Burden. Jim "can hear him now, speaking the lines of the poet Statius, who spoke for Dante: 'I was famous on earth with the name which endures longest and honours most. The seeds of my ardour were the sparks from that divine flame whereby more than a thousand have kindled; I speak of the Aeneid, mother to me and nurse to me in poetry." Cleric also quotes from Inferno, canto 1. In "A Death in the Desert," Katherine Gaylord refers to the Inferno, canto 5, when she says "And in the book we read no more than [that] night." There are allusions to Dante's levels of hell in both "El Dorado: A Kansas Recessional" and "On the Divide."
    Note Source: Woodress 284; My Antonia Book III, Chap 1; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 214; 301; 496; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 214; 301; 496


  56. The Doctor Looks at Literature

  57. Author: Collins, Joseph
    Title: The Doctor Looks at Literature
    Date: 1923
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather enjoyed The Doctor Looks at Literature.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #719


  58. The Dolly Dialogues

  59. Author: Hope, Anthony (Anthony Hope Hawkins)
    Title: The Dolly Dialogues
    Date: 1894
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "As he read them, [Hawkins] seemed now and again to forget that they were his own and to be quite unconsciously amused by the delicate, volatile humor which plays through them."
    Note Source: Courier 11/13/1897


  60. "Don Juan"

  61. Author: Lenau, Nicolaus
    Title: "Don Juan"
    Date: 1851
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: The epigraph to Song of the Lark,"It was a wond'rous lovely storm that drove me!," is from the Austrian Romantic poem "Don Juan."
    Note Source: Song of the Lark epigraph


  62. Don Juan

  63. Author: Byron, George Gordon
    Title: Don Juan
    Date: 1824
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: "Among [Judge Pommeroy's books] was a set of Byron in three volumes, and last winter, apropos of a quotation which Niel didn't recognize, his uncle advised him to read Byron, -- all except 'Don Juan.' That, the Judge remarked, with a deep smile, he 'could save until later.' Niel, of course, began with 'Don Juan.'"
    Note Source: A Lost Lady Part I, Chap. 7


  64. Don Orsino

  65. Author: Crawford, F. Marion
    Title: Don Orsino
    Date: 1892
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Even Mr. Crawford's most ardent admirers would not care to read Don Orsino twice."
    Note Source: Journal 5/10/1896


  66. Donovan

  67. Author: Lyall, Edna
    Title: Donovan
    Date: 1882
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "If you want a book for your daughter or sister you can scarcely miss it by giving her one of Miss Lyall's"; she mentions Donovan, A Hardy Norseman, and We Two.
    Note Source: Home Monthly 1/1897


  68. The Doomswoman

  69. Author: Atherton, Gertrude
    Title: The Doomswoman
    Date: 1892
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: It "was fairly good of its kind. True, it was a pretty bad kind, the kind that summer hotel ladies term 'light literature' and that schoolgirls keep hidden in their desks and weep over. Nevertheless it had some kind of coherent structure because it was spontaneous, and some sort of spirit because it was done without an ulterior purpose and was not an imitation."
    Note Source: Leader 4/22/1899


  70. The Downfall

  71. Author: Zola, Emile
    Title: The Downfall
    Date: 1892
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "[Zola] crouches like Caliban upon his island, and the music of Ariel is to him only a noise which frightens and disturbs.... Of all Mr. Zola's painful novels, there are two that are less painful than the rest, Abbe Mouret's Transgression and The Downfall."
    Note Source: Journal 12/13/1894


  72. Dramatic Essays (Hunt)

  73. Author: Hunt, Leigh
    Title: Dramatic Essays (Hunt)
    Date: 1894
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather calls it "a volume of the best dramatic essays ever written in English."
    Note Source: Courier 1/28/1899


  74. Dramatic Essays (Lamb)

  75. Author: Lamb, Charles
    Title: Dramatic Essays (Lamb)
    Date: 1891
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In a letter to Helen Seibel, Cather says that Lamb's essays are the best she has ever read in English on the theater. In Alexander's Bridge, Sarah Frost's husband compliments Hilda Burgoyne by implying that she is probably one of the very few actresses of the day who would have Lamb's approval.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #30; Alexander's Bridge Chap. 4


  76. Dreamers of the Ghetto

  77. Author: Zangwill, Israel
    Title: Dreamers of the Ghetto
    Date: 1898
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather "was familiar with his Dreamers of the Ghetto (1898—biographies of famous Jews (including her favorite, Heine) who rebelled against orthodox Judaism—and The Master (1895), the story of an artist's struggle up from obscurity."
    Note Source: World and the Parish 1:491


  78. The Drummer Boy of Shiloh: A New Military Allegory

  79. Author: Wigle, F.B.
    Title: The Drummer Boy of Shiloh: A New Military Allegory
    Date: 1887
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Aunt Tillie, in The Song of the Lark, says that Thea is too good to play the part of the drummer boy, a statement that irritates many people.
    Note Source: The Song of the Lark Book I, Chap. 9


  80. Duel of Hearts

  81. Author: Craigen, Maida
    Title: Duel of Hearts
    Date: 1893
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "On seeing Miss Craigen the third time in the Duel [of Hearts], I was convinced that her acting of insanity was less repulsive and heartrending and more effective and artistic"; Craigen both wrote and starred in the play.
    Note Source: Journal 3/25/1894


    Earthwork out of Tuscany

  1. Author: Hewlett, Maurice
    Title: Earthwork out of Tuscany
    Date: 1895
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather was acquainted with Earthwork out of Tuscany.
    Note Source: World and the Parish 2:718


  2. Ecologues

  3. Author: Virgil
    Title: Ecologues
    Date: c. 42-37 B.C.E.
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In My Antonia, Jim thinks of Virgil bringing the Muse "to his father's fields, 'sloping down to the river and to the old beech trees with broken tops'"; the line is from Virgil's Eclogue IX.
    Note Source: My Antonia Book III, Chap. 2; My Antonia Scholarly Edition, note 200


  4. Education for Death: The Making of the Nazi

  5. Author: Ziemer, Gregor
    Title: Education for Death: The Making of the Nazi
    Date: 1941
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Recommends it. Sigrid Undset had suggested it to Cather.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1561


  6. "Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard"

  7. Author: Gray, Thomas
    Title: "Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard"
    Date: 1742
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Albert Engelhardt in "Double Birthday" is referring to Gray's poem when he uses the phrase "even in our ashes." (Ev'n in our ashes live their wonted fires.")
    Note Source: Uncle Valentine and Other Stories 63


  8. "El Parreno"

  9. Title: "El Parreno"
    Genre: song
    Note Relating to Cather: "El Parreno" is one of the songs that Thea Kronborg enjoys singing with Spanish Johnny in The Song of the Lark.
    Note Source: The Song of the Lark II


  10. Elsie

  11. Author: John, Eugenie (pseud. E. Marlitt)
    Title: Elsie
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "There can be but a narrow enough future for a mind brought up upon the priggish distortions of the "Elsie books," weaned upon translations from Mrs. Marlitt [pen name for Eugenie John], and finally graduated into the pseudo-historical novels with which our presses are groaning and of which our public libraries keep thirty copies in circulation at a time."
    Note Source: "The Hundred Worst Books and They That Wrote Them"


  12. Elsie Dinsmore

  13. Author: Finley, Martha
    Title: Elsie Dinsmore
    Date: 1893
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "There can be but a narrow enough future for a mind brought up upon the priggish distortions of the "Elsie books," weaned upon translations from Mrs. Marlitt [pen name for Eugenie John], and finally graduated into the pseudo-historical novels with which our presses are groaning and of which our public libraries keep thirty copies in circulation at a time."
    Note Source: "The Hundred Worst Books and They That Wrote Them"


  14. Elsie Venner

  15. Author: Holmes, Oliver Wendell
    Title: Elsie Venner
    Date: 1861
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "His humor was entirely un-American. Mark Twain's broad humor is the characteristic American humor. But Dr. Holmes' wit was delicate and classic as that of Horace or Charles Lamb, while his scholarship was as profound and feeling and free from pedantry as that of Mr. Andrew Lang.... No, Dr. Holmes could not write a novel, it is only because of the Autocrat [1858] that we can forgive Elsie Venner [1861] and The Guardian Angel [1867]. But through all his work there is the charm of a truly human personality."
    Note Source: Journal 10/14/1894


  16. "The Emperor's New Clothes"

  17. Author: Andersen, Hans Christian
    Title: "The Emperor's New Clothes"
    Date: 1837
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Imogene Willard recalls the story of the "king in his night-clothes," which she likens to Flavia's being "pathetically unconscious of her nakedness."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 168.


  18. Encyclopedia [Britannica 11th ed.?]

  19. Title: Encyclopedia [Britannica 11th ed.?]
    Date: 1911
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In One of Ours, Claude Wheeler reads about Paris in the encyclopedia.
    Note Source: One of Ours Book II, Chap. 9


  20. Endymion

  21. Author: Keats, John
    Title: Endymion
    Date: 1818
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In "A Death in the Desert," Katherine Gaylord says that Adriance Hilgarde's sonata resounds with "the tragedy of effort and failure, the thing Keats called hell."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 213


  22. The Enemy Gods

  23. Author: LaFarge, Oliver
    Title: The Enemy Gods
    Date: 1937
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather compares The Enemy Gods favorably with May Sarton's The Single Hound.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1404


  24. The Ensign

  25. Author: Haworth, William
    Title: The Ensign
    Date: 1892
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather reviewed the play for the Journal in 1894; in 1898, writing about "the horrors of the Maine disaster," she commented, "I sat at my desk thinking with astonishment of the days when I used to laugh at the 'patriotic bathos' of The Ensign and similar military and naval dramas. The most tawdry of them would move me now."
    Note Source: Journal 3/2/1894, Courier 4/23/1898


  26. Enthralled

  27. Author: Saltus, Edgar
    Title: Enthralled
    Date: 1894
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Mr. Edgar Saltus has written a new novel entitled When Dreams Come True. It is rather better than Mr. Saltus' recent work. Certainly it is better than Enthralled [1894], or Madame Sapphira [1895]. It is more pleasant than the police fiction of the former and its aim is a more manly one than getting even with his divorced wife to which he devoted the latter. It is a quiet sort of book without any thrilling episodes, but it has in it the old vigor of style and vivid, unusual use of words which characterized Mr. Saltus in the earlier days when he wrote [The Truth About] Tristem Varick [1888]. It is full of phrases that seem to melt in your mouth as you utter them. Indeed, as usual, one feels much nearer to Mr. Saltus' phrases than his people, and his words seem more alive than his women...."
    Note Source: Journal 7/14/1895


  28. "The Errand"

  29. Author: Heine, Heinrich
    Title: "The Errand"
    Date: 1817-1821
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather quotes her own translation of the poem "The Errand" in a piece on the controversial statue of Heine in Brooklyn's Prospect Park.
    Note Source: Courier 11/6/1897


  30. "An Essay on Criticism"

  31. Author: Pope, Alexander
    Title: "An Essay on Criticism"
    Date: 1711
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Valentine Ramsay's father quotes lines from Part 2, ll. 335-36 from Pope's "An Essay on Criticism."
    Note Source: Uncle Valentine and Other Stories 24


  32. Essays

  33. Author: Montaigne, Michel Eyquem de
    Title: Essays
    Date: 1892
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In A Lost Lady, Niel Herbert reads Montaigne when he is supposed to be reading law. In Lucy Gayheart, Clement Sebastian enjoys watching Lucy walk up to his apartment each morning. One morning he tells Lucy: "Montaigne says somewhere that in early youth the joy of life lies in the feet."
    Note Source: A Lost Lady Part I, chap. 7; Lucy Gayheart Book I, Chap. 7


  34. Ethan Frome

  35. Author: Wharton, Edith
    Title: Ethan Frome
    Date: 1911
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather compares Ethan Frome to Fisher's Her Son's Wife.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #849


  36. "Evelyn Hopee"

  37. Author: Browning, Robert
    Title: "Evelyn Hopee"
    Date: 1842
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: quoted in column
    Note Source: Courier


  38. Evelyn Innes

  39. Author: Moore, George
    Title: Evelyn Innes
    Date: 1898
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1899 Leader article Cather writes: "A book full of strength and enthusiasm, vivid, human characters; strong situations and brilliant episodes that cling to the memory." In a June 1899 Leader article Cather writes: Ouida's Ariadne "is full of display of this sort and of information and misinformation on Greek sculpture, dispensed with haughty assurance. To realize fully the garish superficiality of such work one has only to compare it with a masterpiece like George Moore's Evelyn Innes, which deals understandingly with the art which is its central theme."
    Note Source: Leader 3/10/1899; Leader 6/17/1899


  40. "Eve of St. Agnes"

  41. Author: Keats, John
    Title: "Eve of St. Agnes"
    Date: 1820
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Commenting on Kipling's The Seven Seas: "But compare it, if you will, with Keats' 'St. Agnes Eve'.... Then would you wish to place Kipling among the immortal bards?"
    Note Source: Journal 5/16/1897


  42. "Excelsior"

  43. Author: Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth
    Title: "Excelsior"
    Date: 1841
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Ray tells Thea in Song of the Lark: "If a man stumbles, there's plenty of people to push him down. But if he's like 'the youth who bore,' those same people are foreordained to help him along."
    Note Source:  The Song of the Lark, Book I, Chap. 16


    The Fair Maid of Perth

  1. Author: Scott, Sir Walter
    Title: The Fair Maid of Perth
    Date: 1828
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Dr. Archie "liked Scott's women. Constance de Beverley and the minstrel girl in 'The Fair Maid of Perth' ... were his heroines." The "minstrel girl," Louise, throws herself from a cliff when her love, Prince James, is murdered.
    Note Source: Song of the Lark Part I, Chap. 12


  2. The Fall: Being a True Account of What Happened in Paradise, with a New Interpretation of Sacred History, Vindicating Snakes and Apples

  3. Author: Seibel, George
    Title: The Fall: Being a True Account of What Happened in Paradise, with a New Interpretation of Sacred History, Vindicating Snakes and Apples
    Date: 1918
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Enjoyed" Seibel's book.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #449


  4. Familiar Studies of Men and Books

  5. Author: Stevenson, Robert Louis
    Title: Familiar Studies of Men and Books
    Date: 1882
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "As Stevenson said of Thoreau, he was not a man to love, for he was 'not touched with the feeling of our infirmities.'"
    Note Source: Leader 7/15/1899


  6. Far from the Madding Crowd

  7. Author: Hardy, Thomas
    Title: Far from the Madding Crowd
    Date: 1874
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "I admire Thomas Hardy; I admire the lofty conception of Tess of the d'Urbervilles, the finished execution of A Pair of Blue Eyes, the beautiful simplicity of Far from the Madding Crowd. But for Hearts Insurgent I have no forgiveness."
    Note Source: Courier 10/5/1895


  8. Father Duffy's Story: A Tale of Honor and Heroism

  9. Author: Duffy, Francis
    Title: Father Duffy's Story: A Tale of Honor and Heroism
    Date: 1919
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: A likely source for One of Ours.
    Note Source: One of Ours "Historical Essay" Scholarly Edition 652


  10. Faust

  11. Author: Goethe, Johann Wolfgang
    Title: Faust
    Date: 1808/1832
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Professor's House, Godfrey St. Peter's students refer to him as Mephistopheles because St. Peter has "wicked-looking eyebrows." In a review of Lewis Morrison's Faust: "After one completely disillusioned himself of thinking that he was seeing Goethe's Faust and resigned himself to the fact that he was seeing Morrison's Faust, the play went very well....Mr. Morrison does not seem to be able to write Faust quite as well as Goethe did." In "Old Mrs. Harris," Vickie Templeton admires an illustrated edition of Faust at Mrs. Ronen's house, pausing at a "picture of Gethchen entering the church, with Faustus gazing at her from behend a rose tree, Mephisto at his shoulder." She is disappointed that she can't read it and wants to be able to do so in the German.
    Note Source: The Professor's House Book I, Chap. 1; Journal 1/18/1894; Obscure Destinies 90


  12. Fedora

  13. Author: Sardou, Victorien
    Title: Fedora
    Date: 1887
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Reviewed Fanny Davenport's productions of several plays by Victorien Sardou: Fedora, La Tosca, Cleopatra, Madame Sans Gene, and Gismonda: "And there is only one Sardou. The matronly Fanny Davenport has been giving him to us all week and he is just as great as ever—in spite of Fanny."
    Note Source: Journal 1/31/1897


  14. Felicia

  15. Author: Murgree, Fanny Novailles
    Title: Felicia
    Date: 1891
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "It is strange that from Felicia down, the stage novel has never been a success."
    Note Source: Journal 3/29/1896


  16. Femmes d'Artistes

  17. Author: Daudet, Alphonse
    Title: Femmes d'Artistes
    Date: 1873
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: George Seibel reports that Femmes d'Artistes was the first book that he, his wife Helen, and Cather read together when they began to meet "once or twice a week to "'read French.'" Seibel recalled the stories as "bubbling with malicious delight in feminine foibles." In a Courier article, Cather writes, "What a superb piece of irony that the man who wrote Les Femmes d'Artistes and so bitterly condemned marriage for artists, should have married the woman he loved and should have loved her through a lifetime."
    Note Source: Willa Cather Remembered 12; Courier 1/22/1898


  18. Field Book of American Wild Flowers

  19. Author: Mathews, F. Schuyler
    Title: Field Book of American Wild Flowers
    Date: 1902
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In a letter Cather refers Sigrid Undset to entry on swamp milkweed in Field Book of American Wild Flowers. In an essay on Cather's life in Jaffrey, NH: "In the afternoons she took long walks through the countryside and up Mount Monadnock, carrying with her a favorite book, F. Schuyler Mathews's Field Book of American Wild Flowers."
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1559; My Antonia Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay"


  20. Fifine at the Fair

  21. Author: Browning, Robert
    Title: Fifine at the Fair
    Date: 1872
    Genre: verse drama
    Note Relating to Cather: mentioned in column
    Note Source: NSJ


  22. Figaro

  23. Title: Figaro
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Count of Crow's Nest," Paul, Count de Koch, refers to a headline in the newspaper Figaro.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 470


  24. The First Battle: A Story of the Campaign of 1896

  25. Author: Bryan, William Jennings
    Title: The First Battle: A Story of the Campaign of 1896
    Date: 1896
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather calls The First Battle: A Story of the Campaign of 1896 "an almost unparalleled instance of bad taste."
    Note Source: Library 7/14/1900


  26. First Call

  27. Author: Empey, Arthur Guy
    Title: First Call
    Date: 1918
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: A likely source for One of Ours.
    Note Source: One of Ours "Historical Essay" Scholarly Edition 652


  28. "The Fir Tree"

  29. Author: Andersen, Hans Christian
    Title: "The Fir Tree"
    Date: 1844
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Source for Cather's reference to "the talking tree of the fairy tale."
    Note Source: My Antonia Book I, Chap. 11


  30. "The Fisherman and the 'Efreet" from The Arabian Nights

  31. Title: "The Fisherman and the 'Efreet" from The Arabian Nights
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Conversion of Sum Loo," Norman Girard recalls the djinn (or jinn) caught in Arabian bottles. In "Paul's Case," there is a reference to "the Genius in the bottle" that Paul uncorks. The "Efreet" is in the bottle in some renditions.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 324; 246


  32. Florentinische Nachte

  33. Author: Heine, Heinrich
    Title: Florentinische Nachte
    Date: 1837
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "A Death in the Desert," Katherine Gaylord likens her talks with Everett Hilgarde to Heine's "Florentine Nights."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 212


  34. The Flowering of New England

  35. Author: Brooks, Van Wyck
    Title: The Flowering of New England
    Date: 1936
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather writes to Brooks, pointing to an error in his book on New England.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1499


  36. The Ford

  37. Author: Austin, Mary
    Title: The Ford
    Date: 1917
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather tells Sergeant that she might like to read Mary Austin's The Ford.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #387


  38. The Forest Lovers

  39. Author: Hewlett, Maurice
    Title: The Forest Lovers
    Date: 1898
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1899 Courier article, Cather calls The Forest Lovers "a masterpiece of imaginative literature." In a 1901 Courier article: "For the sake of so much that was beautiful ... we willfully stopped our ears to that note of hysterical effeminateness which crept now and then into Mr. Maurice Hewlett's work ...."
    Note Source: Courier 8/26/1899; Courier 8/10/1901


  40. Fortunio

  41. Author: Gautier, Theophile
    Title: Fortunio
    Date: 1838
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Count of Crow's Nest," Count de Koch encourages Harold Buchanan to read Fortunio.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 454


  42. "Fragment of an Ode to Maia--Written on May Day"

  43. Author: Keats, John
    Title: "Fragment of an Ode to Maia--Written on May Day"
    Date: 1818
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Treasure of Far Island," Douglass Burnham says that as children they lived "the joy of the doing," comparing the children's joy to that of Keats's Grecian poets: "'Rich in the simple worship of a day.'"
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 280


  44. Fremont

  45. Author: Nevins, Allan
    Title: Fremont
    Date: 1928
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather considers Allan Nevins's Fremont true to the spirit of the times.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1226


  46. French Perspectives

  47. Author: Sergeant, Elizabeth Shepley
    Title: French Perspectives
    Date: 1916
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Sergeant's French Perspectives was undoubtedly a source for Cather's perspective on French culture in One of Ours.
    Note Source: One of Ours "Historical Essay" Scholarly Edition 650


  48. French Poets and Novelists

  49. Author: James, Henry
    Title: French Poets and Novelists
    Date: 1884
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Seibel and Cather agreed that Henry James "was a great critic, and [they] delved into all those Gallic writers of Partial Portraits and French Poets and Novelists--Balzac, Sand, Merimee, Maupassant--with occasional excursions into Dumas fils, Edouard Rod, intoxicating whiffs of Baudelaire and Richepin, deep draughts of young Rostand's ruby wine. Henry James was the guide whose hand held ours, and his critical standard was our polestar on those voyages." In a 1899 article in the Leader, Cather writes, "Henry James regards the fact that Alfred de Musset did not visit Spain when he had the opportunity as one of the saddest proofs of his intellectual limitation, and finds de Musset's 'contented smallness of horizon' the most regrettable thing in his life."
    Note Source: Willa Cather Remembered 17; Leader 7/15/1899


  50. Friends

  51. Author: Royle, Edwin Milton
    Title: Friends
    Date: 1893
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "It is strange anyway that in this day of the world, when the individual is so loudly asserting his mightiness, any one should write a drama on one man's loving another man better than himself. It is a beautiful idea, perhaps, but it does not exist outside of girls' boarding schools."
    Note Source: Journal 12/14/1893


  52. Friendship: A Story of Society

  53. Author: Ouida (Marie Louise de la Ramee)
    Title: Friendship: A Story of Society
    Date: 1878
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Sometimes I wonder why God ever trusts talent in the hands of women, they usually make such an infernal mess of it. I think He must do it as a sort of ghastly joke. Really, it would be hard to find a better plot than is in that same Under Two Flags, and the book contains the rudiments of a great style, and it also contains some of the most driveling nonsense and mawkish sentimentality and contemptible feminine weakness to be found anywhere." Also mentioned: A Village Commune, Pascarel, Ariadne, Wanda, and Friendship; each has merits, but "I hate to read them."
    Note Source: Courier 11/23/1895


    Garibaldi's Defense of the Roman Empire;Garibaldi and the Thousand; Garibaldi and the Making of Italy

  1. Author: Trevelyan, George Macaulay
    Title: Garibaldi's Defense of the Roman Empire;Garibaldi and the Thousand; Garibaldi and the Making of Italy
    Date: 1907; 1909; 1911
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In One of Ours, Julius Erlich encourages Claude Wheeler to read one of Trevelyan's three volumes on Garibaldi published between 1907 and 1911. Eden Bower, in "Coming, Eden Bower!" sits behind the statue of Garibaldi in Washington Square.
    Note Source: One of Ours Book I, Chap. 15; Uncle Valentine and Other Stories 154


  2. "The Gate of a Hundred Sorrows"

  3. Author: Kipling, Rudyard
    Title: "The Gate of a Hundred Sorrows"
    Date: 1888
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "He has been trying to live a respectable Puritan life in Vermont and be a full-fledged family man.... Go back to the east, Mr. Kipling; we and our world are not for you. Our life is not free enough for you and you are not strong enough for it.... Go back to the land where you wrote 'The Gate of a Hundred Sorrows' and 'Without Benefit of Clergy' and 'On the City Wall'....Ah, Mr. Kipling, it would be sad and tragical if it were not so laughable that you who wrote 'The Story of the Gadsbys' should be the victim of matrimony. It has shorn the wings of your freedom, and your freedom was your art.... Alas! There were so many men who could have married Mrs. Kipling, and there was only you who could write Soldiers Three."
    Note Source: Journal 12/23/1894


  4. The Gay Lord Quex

  5. Author: Pinero, Arthur Wing
    Title: The Gay Lord Quex
    Date: 1899
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In a piece in the World and the Parish, Cather review The Gay Lord Quex in the 3/6/1901 Index. In a 1901 Index article Cather calls The Gay Lord Quex "the best English play of the year."
    Note Source: World and the Parish 2:793; Index 3/9/1901


  6. The Gentleman From Indiana

  7. Author: Tarkington, Booth
    Title: The Gentleman From Indiana
    Date: 1899
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "The execution of Mr. Tarkington's novel is so amateurish that it will scarcely be seriously considered among literary people -- outside of Indiana...."
    Note Source: Courier 1/2/1900


  8. A Gentleman of France

  9. Author: Weyman, Stanley
    Title: A Gentleman of France
    Date: 1893
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather recommends A Gentleman of France, The House of the Wolf, and Under the Red Robe to Home Monthly readers.
    Note Source: Home Monthly 2/1897


  10. George Borrow: Life and Correspondence

  11. Author: Knapp, William
    Title: George Borrow: Life and Correspondence
    Date: 1895
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "I fancy that most of the professor went into his hobby, however, and that after fifty years he gives us ... his own life along with that of George Borrow."
    Note Source: Leader 7/15/1899


  12. Georgics

  13. Author: Virgil
    Title: Georgics
    Date: c. 36-35 B.C.E.
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In a letter, Cather says that seeing farmers in fields around Naples reminds her of the Georgics. According to a note in My Antonia, "It is very likely that she read Virgil's Georgics in Lincoln, from which she drew the "Optima dies... prima fugit" quotation [the novel's epigraph] that provides a haunting theme for Jim's memories of his youth and college years" (Georgics Book III, lines 66-67). Jim studies the text with Gaston Cleric, with particular emphasis on Book III, lines 10-12: "for I shall be the first, if I live, to bring the Muse into my country."
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #137; My Antonia Scholarly Edition, note 1, note 197


  14. Germinal

  15. Author: Zola, Emile
    Title: Germinal
    Date: 1885
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "M. Zola's greatness as a man has not always been to his advantage as an artist ... In his novel Germinal, however, the man and the artist are in perfect unity and perfect balance."
    Note Source: Courier 9/16/1899


  16. The Gilded Fool

  17. Author: Carlton, Henry Guy
    Title: The Gilded Fool
    Date: 1892
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "Anyone who remembers A Gilded Fool will recall how genuine and moving it is. There is not one line of bombastic eloquence, not one improbable situation in it from beginning to end. It does not deal with the impossible, the unusual or the bizarre, but with the common, universal impulses of humanity which all really great men find quite strange and wonderful enough."
    Note Source: Journal 8/4/1895


  18. The Gilded Man

  19. Author: Bandelier, Adolph
    Title: The Gilded Man
    Date: 1893
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Source for Death Comes for the Archbishop.
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Scholarly Edition 349-50


  20. The Girl I Left Behind Me

  21. Author: Belasco, David
    Title: The Girl I Left Behind Me
    Date: 1893
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "The severest criticism that can be passed upon any play is to say that it is fundamentally and organically false. No plays merit that charge more truly than those of David Belasco.... He would probably excuse his timid little Sunday school emotions by saying that they are realistic. Well, that sort of Howells' realism goes very well at home in a wrapper and an easy chair, but we need something more vivid to recompense us for sitting three hours in a cramped opera chair with our tight clothes on."
    Note Source: Journal 1/27/1895


  22. Gismonda

  23. Author: Sardou, Victorien
    Title: Gismonda
    Date: 1896
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Reviewed Fanny Davenport's productions of several plays by Victorien Sardou: Fedora, La Tosca, Cleopatra, Madame Sans Gene, and Gismonda: "And there is only one Sardou. The matronly Fanny Davenport has been giving him to us all week and he is just as great as ever—in spite of Fanny."
    Note Source: Journal 1/31/1897


  24. Gloria Mundi

  25. Author: Frederic, Harold
    Title: Gloria Mundi
    Date: 1898
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Both Gloria Mundi and The Market Place bear unmistakeable evidences of the slack rein and the hasty hand."
    Note Source: Leader 6/10/1899


  26. "Go, Lovely Rose!"

  27. Author: Waller, Edmund
    Title: "Go, Lovely Rose!"
    Date: 1645
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Waller's poem "On the Rose" was set to music by Heny Lawes. In "Flavia and her Artists," Arthur Hamilton quotes a phrase of the poem: "The common fate of all things rare."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 172


  28. "Goblin Market"

  29. Author: Rossetti, Christina
    Title: "Goblin Market"
    Date: 1862
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather quotes stanza 2, lines eleven through fourteen as an epigraph to The Troll Garden and Youth and the Bright Medusa.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 148


  30. Gods in Exile

  31. Author: Heine, Heinrich
    Title: Gods in Exile
    Date: 1854
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather makes reference to Heine's Gods in Exile in a piece on the death of Verlaine.
    Note Source: Journal 2/2/1896


  32. The Golden Age

  33. Author: Grahame, Kenneth
    Title: The Golden Age
    Date: 1941 ed. (1895)
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather is glad that Graham has reprinted The Golden Age
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1533


  34. Golden Days for Boys and Girls

  35. Title: Golden Days for Boys and Girls
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Enchanted Bluff," Percy Pound is accused of getting his information about the Aztecs from the magazine Golden Days for Boys and Girls.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 73


  36. The Golden Legend

  37. Author: De Voragine, Jacobus
    Title: The Golden Legend
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather mentions this popular thirteenth-century collection of saints' lives in her letter to the Commonweal "on Death Comes for the Archbishop."
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Scholarly Edition 377


  38. "The Golden Legend"

  39. Author: Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth
    Title: "The Golden Legend"
    Date: 1851
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In O Pioneers!, Alexandra Bergson "was fond of Longfellow's verse, -- the ballads and the 'Golden Legend' and 'The Spanish Student.'" The "Golden Legend" is a dramatic poem set in the Middle Ages. In "Coming, Eden Bower!" Don Hedger had learned the poem from his mentor.
    Note Source: O Pioneers! Part I, Chap. 4; Youth and the Bright Medusa 9


  40. Goldselse [and others]

  41. Author: John, Eugenie
    Title:  Goldselse [and others]
    Date: 1893
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "There can be but a narrow enough future for a mind brought up upon the priggish distortions of the "Elsie books," weaned upon translations from Mrs. Marlitt [pen name for Eugenie John], and finally graduated into the pseudo-historical novels with which our presses are groaning and of which our public libraries keep thirty copies in circulation at a time."
    Note Source: "The Hundred Worst Books and They That Wrote Them"


  42. "The Goose that Laid the Golden Egg"

  43. Author: Aesop
    Title: "The Goose that Laid the Golden Egg"
    Date: c. 550 BCE
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Diamond Mine," Cressida Garnet is likened to the goose that laid the golden egg, a story found in Aesop collections usually under that name.
    Note Source: Vintage 88


  44. "The Grave"

  45. Author: Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth
    Title: "The Grave"
    Date: 1857
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: St. Peter "remembered some lines of a translation from the Norse he used to read long ago in one of his mother's few books, a little two-volume Ticknor and Fields edition of Longfellow, in blue and gold, that used to lie on the parlour table: For thee a house was built/ Ere thou wast born;/ For thee a mould was made/ Ere thou of woman camest"; he quotes the first four lines of "The Grave," translated from the Anglo-Saxon (not Norse). Ticknor and Fields published the "Blue and Gold" edition of Longfellow's Poems in 1857.
    Note Source: The Professor's House Book III, Chap. 4


  46. Great Expectations

  47. Author: Dickens, Charles
    Title: Great Expectations
    Date: 1861
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather likes Great Expectations but does not like all of Dickens.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1623


  48. The Great Gatsby

  49. Author: Fitzgerald, F. Scott
    Title: The Great Gatsby
    Date: 1925
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: According to "Historical Essay," Fitzgerald wrote to Cather to explain a similarity between his characterization of Daisy and Cather's of Mrs. Forrester. "Cather replied that before receiving his letter she had enjoyed reading The Great Gatsby, and she had not noticed a similarity with her story. Many writers had tried to say the same thing, she reflected; one can describe beauty only by describing its effect upon an observer (28 April 1925)."
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #781; A Lost Lady Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay" 225


  50. "The Great Stone Face"

  51. Author: Hawthorne, Nathaniel
    Title: "The Great Stone Face"
    Date: 1851
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Occasionally . . . some clear-sighted student wondered whether the man [Emerson Graves] ever realized how completely he illustrated the allegory "The Great Stone Face" in himself." ("The Professor's Commencement")
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 283


  52. The Greeks Had a Word for It

  53. Author: Akins, Zoe
    Title: The Greeks Had a Word for It
    Date: 1930
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather does not like its lead actress nor its dreariness.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1034


  54. The Green Fairy Book

  55. Author: Lang, Andrew
    Title: The Green Fairy Book
    Date: 1894
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Hester Tavener tells the tale "Little Pig that Made a Mud House" to the minister in "The Sentimentality of William Tavener."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 353


  56. Grey of Fallodon

  57. Author: Trevelyan, George Macaulay
    Title: Grey of Fallodon
    Date: 1937
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather enjoyed Trevelyan's Grey of Fallodon.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1404


  58. Griechische Formenlehre

  59. Author: Kuhner, Raphael
    Title: Griechische Formenlehre
    Date: 1834
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Jack-a-Boy," the classics professor's major Greek grammar is probably the one by Kuhner which went through several editions in the 19th century.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 314


  60. Grimm's Fairy Tales

  61. Author: Grimm, Jakob and Wilhelm Karl
    Title: Grimm's Fairy Tales
    Date: 1884
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In My Antonia, Jim Burden compares Antonia to Snow-White. In "The Best Years," Lesley Ferguesson recalls a line from "The Robber Bridegroom" when she thinks of the large attic room where her siblings sleep and no adults are allowed: "Return, return, thou youthful bride,/This is a robbers' hall inside."
    Note Source: My Antonia Book II, Chap. 12; The Old Beauty and Others 111


  62. Author: Grimm, Jakob and Wilhelm Karl
    Title: Grimm's Fairy Tales
    Date: 1884
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather describes Marianne Stokes's painting "Little Brother and Sister," which illustrates a scene from the Grimm tale of the same title.
    Note Source: Gazette 11/24/1902


  63. The Guardian Angel

  64. Author: Holmes, Oliver Wendell
    Title: The Guardian Angel
    Date: 1867
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "His humor was entirely un-American. Mark Twain's broad humor is the characteristic American humor. But Dr. Holmes' wit was delicate and classic as that of Horace or Charles Lamb, while his scholarship was as profound and feeling and free from pedantry as that of Mr. Andrew Lang.... No, Dr. Holmes could not write a novel, it is only because of the Autocrat [1858] that we can forgive Elsie Venner [1861] and The Guardian Angel [1867]. But through all his work there is the charm of a truly human personality."
    Note Source: Journal 10/14/1894


  65. Gulliver's Travels

  66. Author: Swift, Jonathan
    Title: Gulliver's Travels
    Date: 1726
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Professor's House Tom Outland remembers: "We had Robinson Crusoe with us, and Roddy's favourite book, Gulliver's Travels, which he never tired of." In "Scandal," Kitty Ayrshire compares her feeling after forcibly being invited to a dinner party by Mrs. Stein to that which Gulliver must have felt among the giants.
    Note Source: The Professor's House Book II, Chap. 1; Youth and the Bright Medusa 175


  67. Gunner's Daughter

  68. Author: Undset, Sigrid
    Title: Gunner's Daughter
    Date: 1936
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Considers Gunner's Daughter perhaps Undset's best book.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1578


    Hamlet

  1. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: Hamlet
    Date: 1603
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1895 Journal article Cather writes: "There has got to be a Hamlet revolution and the sooner the better. The melancholy Dane must be pulled down from banqueting with Plato and Socrates and put over with Charles I and Prince Arthur and all the other princely failures. The man who will humanize the stage Hamlet will be a great man." In a 1900 Library article Cather recalls her attempts to apply mathematical formulae to an analysis of the texts as per her training at Nebraska State. In a 1901 Courier article Cather writes: "Fiction writers are becoming more and more 'sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought'; given over to psychological studies so that they have lost all kinship and knowledge of that part of society which lives in its ears and eyes and stomach and uses its fists oftener than its handkerchiefs."
    Note Source: Journal 3/10/1895; Library 6/23/1900; Courier 8/10/1901


  2. Happy Days, 1880-1892

  3. Author: Mencken, H.L.
    Title: Happy Days, 1880-1892
    Date: 1940
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather says that she wishes that she had lived sooner.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1476


  4. Happy Times in Norway

  5. Author: Undset, Sigrid
    Title: Happy Times in Norway
    Date: 1942
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Considers Happy Times in Norway a beautiful book.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1594


  6. A Hardy Norseman

  7. Author: Lyall, Edna
    Title: A Hardy Norseman
    Date: 1889
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "If you want a book for your daughter or sister you can scarcely miss it by giving her one of Miss Lyall's"; she mentions Donovan, A Hardy Norseman, and We Two.
    Note Source: Home Monthly 1/1897


  8. The Heart of Princess Osra

  9. Author: Hope, Anthony (Anthony Hope Hawkins)
    Title: The Heart of Princess Osra
    Date: 1896
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: When he learns that Eric will not dance with Margaret Elliot, Wyllis Elliot compares Eric to the miller of Hofbau. ("Eric Hermannson's Soul")
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 368


  10. The Heavenly Twins

  11. Author: Grand, Sarah
    Title: The Heavenly Twins
    Date: 1893
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Everyone read The Heavenly Twins, because it was atrocious, and laughed at the book and themselves when they were through with it"; The Heavenly Twins is a novel on the woman's rights question, written by Sarah Grand, pseudonym of Mrs. Frances Elizabeth McFall.
    Note Source: Journal 12/23/1894


  12. Hedda Gabler

  13. Author: Ibsen, Henrik
    Title: Hedda Gabler
    Date: 1890
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912, Jemima Broadwood uses Hedda Gabler as an example of a character Flavia has no opinion about herself; Flavia depends on others for her opinions. In Index, Cather says the 12/1900 performance at Washington, D.C.'s Lafayette Theatre was "notable ... in many respects."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 165-6; Index 12/29/1900


  14. The Helpers

  15. Author: Lynde, Francis
    Title: The Helpers
    Date: 1899
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Of Lynde's western setting, Cather says, "Everyone is practically away from home, everyone has left his friends behind him, and the common exile draws man and woman very close to each other and makes quick friendships."
    Note Source: Leader 12/2/1899


  16. Henry Esmond

  17. Author: Thackeray, William Makepeace
    Title: Henry Esmond
    Date: 1852
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1894 Journal article, Cather mentioned in review of Beau Brummell: "The whole play is like a chapter from Henry Esmond, in some way it was entirely Thackerayesque. It was saturated with the spirit, the time and people that Thackeray preferred to deal with." In a Home Monthly article Cather writes: "The greatest of all English novels."
    Note Source: Journal 4/29/1894; Home Monthly 10/1897


  18. Henry IV

  19. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: Henry IV
    Date: 1598
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: According to an 1895 Journal article, Cather writes about Julia Marlowe's plan to play Prince Hal in her staging of Henry IV: "We have our own conception of Prince Hal; a youth red of hair, blue of eyes, hot of temper, coarse of tongue, amourous and sensual, but having withal a blunt honesty and sturdy manlihood which lies somewhere at the root of every Englishman." In a January 1895 Journal article, Cather writes: "It is a grave question as to just how far the historical plays of Shakespeare are fitted for the modern stage. They were not the product of his highest thought or most spontaneous inspiration." Plays mentioned in this essay: Henry IV, Henry V, Henry VI, Henry VIII, Richard III. In "The Treasure of Far Island," Douglass Burnham uses the words of Shakespeare "mettle of [her] pasture" (III:1.27) when he is persuading Margie Van Dyck to go to Far Island.
    Note Source: Journal 8/11/1895; Journal 1/20/1895; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 275


  20. Henry IV, Part II

  21. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: Henry IV, Part II
    Date: 1600
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Song of the Lark, Madison Bowers calls the wealthy, untalented women who come to take singing lessons: "pampered jades of Asia" (II:4.174).
    Note Source: The Song of the Lark Part III, Chap. 1


  22. Henry IV Part 2

  23. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: Henry IV Part 2
    Date: 1598
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "I loved to hear her [Mrs. Fields] read Richard II, or the great, melancholy speeches of Henry IV in the Palace at Westminster: 'And changes fill the cup of altera-ti-on/with divers liquors.'" (III.1.53-54)
    Note Source: Not Under Forty 63


  24. Henry VIII

  25. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: Henry VIII
    Date: 1623
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1895 Journal article, Cather writes: "It is a grave question as to just how far the historical plays of Shakespeare are fitted for the modern stage. They were not the product of his highest thought or most spontaneous inspiration." Plays mentioned in this essay: Henry IV, Henry V, Henry VI, Henry VIII, Richard III. In My Mortal Enemy, Nelly Birdseye had seen Helena Modjeska play Katherine, Henry's first wife.
    Note Source: Journal 1/20/1895; My Mortal Enemy Part I, Chap. 5


  26. Herald

  27. Title: Herald
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Behind the Singer Tower," Johnson works for The Herald. In 1924 it became the Herald-Tribune.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 43


  28. The Herb-Moon

  29. Author: Craigie, Pearl Mary Teresa
    Title: The Herb-Moon
    Date: 1896
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "The style [of her new novel, School for Saints] is somewhat heterogeneous and quite different from that in which The Herb-Moon was written."
    Note Source: Leader 1/7/1898


  30. Author: Hobbes, John Oliver (pseud. of Pearl Mary Teresa Craigie)
    Title: The Herb-Moon
    Date: 1896
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "The style [of her new novel, School for Saints] is somewhat heterogeneous and quite different from that in which The Herb-Moon was written."
    Note Source: Leader 1/7/1898


  31. Here & There & Everywhere: Reminiscences

  32. Author: Sherwood, Mary Elizabeth Wilson
    Title: Here & There & Everywhere: Reminiscences
    Date: 1898
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "The attitude of 'society' toward 'art' is always interesting and not infrequently amusing.... The fact is, all of these little arts are rather specialties in themselves, trivial as they seem, and even a superficial understanding of them requires quite as much study as the 'art of entertaining perfectly' or the science of etiquette. That in her eventful life Mrs. Sherwood has not found leisure to give them this study is painfully evident."
    Note Source: Leader 5/6/1898


  33. "The Hermit"

  34. Author: Beattie, James
    Title: "The Hermit"
    Date: 1766
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Although John March (529) identifies the quotation "night of the grave" as possibly coming from Beattie's lines" "But when shall spring visit the mouldering urn?/O when shall it dawn on the night of the grave?" it might well be attributed to Percy Bysshe Shelley's "Bereavement": Ah, when shall day dawn on the night of the grave,/Or summer succeed to the winter of death?/ Rest awhile, hapless victim! . . . "
    Note Source: My Mortal Enemy Book I, Chap. 2


  35. Hernani

  36. Author: Hugo, Victor
    Title: Hernani
    Date: 1899
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In Willa Cather Remembered, George Seibel says of his and Cather's translating French works: "We plunged into vats of color like Theophile Gautier's Une Nuit de Cleopatre, and scaled towers of alexandrines in Victor Hugo's Hernani. Verlaine and Baudelaire were among the poets we discovered, Bourget and Huysmans among the novelists." In an 1895 Journal article, Cather writes: "The traditions of our stage are distinctly unliterary....We cannot understand why lines 220 and 381 of Hugo's Hernani at the first representation drove all conservative classics out of the house and almost ruined the play."
    Note Source: Willa Cather Remembered 13; Journal 8/4/1895


  37. The Heroides or Heriodum Espistulae

  38. Author: Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso)
    Title: The Heroides or Heriodum Espistulae
    Date: c. 5 BCE
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In A Lost Lady, Niel Herbert believes that the epistolary poems of the Heroides are "the most glowing love stories ever told."
    Note Source: A Lost Lady Part I, Chap. 7


  39. Her Son's Wife

  40. Author: Fisher, Dorothy Canfield
    Title: Her Son's Wife
    Date: 1926
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather remarks that Her Son's Wife is an overwhelmingly "somber" novel.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #849


  41. High Mowing

  42. Author: Canby, Marion
    Title: High Mowing
    Date: 1932
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather says that she "especially likes" the poem "Timid One."
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1106


  43. His Grace de Grammont

  44. Author: Fitch, Clyde
    Title: His Grace de Grammont
    Date: 1894
    Genre: play
    Note Relating to Cather: "Nathan Hale, like all Clyde Fitch's later works, De Grammont and The Moth and the Flame, has brilliant moments, flashes of dramatic intensity almost, but not quite, great enough to redeem the whole play."
    Note Source: Courier 1/21/1899


  45. Histoire de France

  46. Author: Michelet, J. Jules
    Title: Histoire de France
    Date: 1860
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In One of Ours, when Claude Wheeler leaves his thesis for the Professor and acknowledges that he had acquitted Jeanne d'Arc, his Professor suggests that Claude read what Michelet had to say about her. In a letter, Cather reports that she has completed the third volume of Michelet. In another letter, Cather was reading volume nine of Michelet with Isabelle. In a letter, Cather reports that she is reading Michelet's history of France. According to Not Under Forty and Obscure Destinies, one of Cather's favorite lines is "The end is nothing; the road is all." She uses the quotation in an interview with Flora Merrill for the Lincoln State Journal in 1925. In "Old Mrs. Harris," David Rosen quotes the line to comfort Vickie Templeton who is distressed because she wants to go to college so much but does not know why. Cather attributes the line to Michelet in the essay "Joseph and His Brothers" published in Not Under Forty. The exact line in Michelet has not been identified.
    Note Source: One of Ours Book I, Chap. 11; A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #219; A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #241; A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1463; Obscure Destinies 131; Not Under Forty 99


  47. History

  48. Author: Herodotus
    Title: History
    Date: 440 BCE
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Song of the Lark, when trouble threatens, Mrs. Tellamantez soothes herself by combing her long black hair. Thea reflects, "Mexican women are like the Spartans; when they are in trouble, in love, under stress of any kind, they comb and comb their hair." See Herodotus, book 7, chs. 207-209, for a description of a spy reporting that the Spartans were combing their hair--as if they were in danger (March 724).
    Note Source: The Song of the Lark Book I, Chap. 6


  49. History of New Mexico: Its Resources and People

  50. Author: Anderson, George B.
    Title: History of New Mexico: Its Resources and People
    Date: 1907
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Source for Death Comes for the Archbishop.
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Scholarly Edition, note 9


  51. History of New Mexico and Arizona

  52. Author: Bancroft, Hubert H.
    Title: History of New Mexico and Arizona
    Date: 1889
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Source for Death Comes for the Archbishop.
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Scholarly Edition 349-50


  53. History of Pendennis

  54. Author: Thackeray, William Makepeace
    Title: History of Pendennis
    Date: 1848-50
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1894 Journal article, Cather comments on Brother John by Martha Morton: "The youthful lovers of David Copperfield and Arthur Pendennis, Esq., are only funny because they were so desperately serious.... It is the laughter and reckless gaiety that makes the first act of Camille so horribly pathetic, the seriousness of the poor inventor that makes [Edward E. Kidder's comedy] The Poor Relation so funny." In an 1899 Courier article, Cather writes: "You remember how in Thackeray's novel, old Mr. Robert Bows of the orchestra sat out on the bridge one night and talked to Pendennis about Miss Fotheringay and told how he had trained and taught and drilled her, made her Juliet and Ophelia with his own hands, created all her parts for her, and, since churlish nature had denied a soul to that beautiful body, he had given her his own? Look over the history of the stage and you will find that for almost every one of its great women, some man has made just that sacrifice."
    Note Source: Journal 12/9/1894; Courier 7/1/1899


  55. History of the Conquest of Mexico

  56. Author: Prescott, William H.
    Title: History of the Conquest of Mexico
    Date: 1843
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Enchanted Bluff," Arthur Adams says, "When my father was in Mexico City he saw the stone where they [Aztecs] used to sacrifice their prisoners." Prescott describes such a stone on display at the El Museo Nacional de Mexico in his History of the Conquest of Mexico (March 39-40).
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 73


  57. "Holger Danske," or "Ogier the Dane"

  58. Author: Andersen, Hans Christian
    Title: "Holger Danske," or "Ogier the Dane"
    Date: 1845
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Holger Danske is a mythical protector of Denmark who lives in a castle called Kronborg (the surname of Cather's protagonist in Song of the Lark); the story is about a wood-carver and his family, and celebrates the history and strength of Denmark. Cather's reference to "Swedes liking to buy Danish bread and the Danes liking to buy Swedish bread" in O Pioneers! is an allusion to this story.
    Note Source: O Pioneers! Part I, Chap. 4


  59. Holland and its People

  60. Author: De Amicis, Edmondo
    Title: Holland and its People
    Date: 1880
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather says if it "were boiled down to about one half of its bulk, it would be a more readable book and lose none of its beauty." The original Italian edition, Olanda, appeared in 1874; a translation by Caroline Tilton was published in 1880.
    Note Source: Leader 5/27/1899


  61. Holland as Seen by An American

  62. Author: Gore, James Howard
    Title: Holland as Seen by An American
    Date: 1903
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather calls it "an appreciation of rather than a study of Holland."
    Note Source: Leader 5/27/1899


  63. The Holy War

  64. Author: Bunyan, John
    Title: The Holy War
    Date: 1763 ed.
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In Sapphira and the Slave Girl, Henry Colbert "took from the shelf a book he often read, John Bunyan's Holy War, -- a copy printed in Glasgow in 1763." He reads the passage beginning "Also things began to grow scarce in Mansoul," and continues with "When the town of Mansoul had thus far rid themselves of their enemies." In reading, "he found consolation. An honest man, who had suffered much, was speaking to him of things about which he could not unbosom himself to anyone." In Sapphira and the Slave Girl, Henry Colbert "found a comforter in John Bunyan, who also had been troubled." In "The Professor's Comencement," Emerson Graves recalls The Holy War late at night, and as he does so, he worries about which "captains" shall replace him.
    Note Source: Sapphira and the Slave Girl Book VI Chap. 3; Sapphira and the Slave Girl Book II Chap. 1; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 286


  65. A Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges

  66. Author: Autenrieth, Georg Gottlieb Philipp
    Title: A Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges
    Date: trans. 1891
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Autenrieth's books were some of those that lured the professor of classics away from "other purposes" in "Jack-a-Boy."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 314


  67. "Home Thoughts From Abroad"

  68. Author: Browning, Robert
    Title: "Home Thoughts From Abroad"
    Date: 1845
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather describes flowers in Kensington's gardens as "gaudier than Browning's 'gaudy melon flower.'"
    Note Source: Journal 8/17/1902


  69. "Horatius"

  70. Author: Macaulay, Thomas Babington
    Title: "Horatius"
    Date: 1842
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Emerson Graves begins and ends his career in "The Professor's Commencement" by reciting "Horatius." Each time, his memory fails him.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 287, 291


  71. The House of Seven Gables

  72. Author: Hawthorne, Nathaniel
    Title: The House of Seven Gables
    Date: 1851
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather considers The House of Seven Gables dull required reading in schools.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1649


  73. The House of the Wolf

  74. Author: Weyman, Stanley
    Title: The House of the Wolf
    Date: 1890
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather recommends A Gentleman of France, The House of the Wolf, and Under the Red Robe to Home Monthly readers.
    Note Source: Home Monthly 2/1897


  75. "How It Strikes a Contemporary"

  76. Author: Browning, Robert
    Title: "How It Strikes a Contemporary"
    Date: 1855
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In an essay on various stage adaptations of Scenes de la vie de Boheme (1848) by Henri Murger: "If you would know how poets live, read Browning's 'How It Strikes a Contemporary.' He tells the same story."
    Note Source: Journal 4/5/1896


  77. Hugh Wynne, Free Quaker

  78. Author: Mitchell, S. Weir
    Title: Hugh Wynne, Free Quaker
    Date: 1896
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather favorably reviewed this bestselling story of the American Revolution for the Home Monthly.
    Note Source: Home Monthly 1/1898


  79. The Hunchback of Notre Dame

  80. Author: Hugo, Victor
    Title: The Hunchback of Notre Dame
    Date: 1831
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Do you want to know what it was like to live in the Paris of the fifteenth century, when the grim superstitions of the Dark Ages dominated human thought like a shadow, when good living was not considered a part of religion, and men prayed, then went out and murdered and pillaged and returned to the cathedral and prayed again? Then read Notre Dame."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 2/1898


  81. "Hylas"

  82. Author: Guiney, Louise Imogen
    Title: "Hylas"
    Date: 1893
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In a 1902 Gazette article, Cather writes: "Miss Guiney has a singular power of adapting her meters to her subject, so that the mere melody of her verse often takes the color of the sentiment and interprets it as the accompaniment does the air of a Schubert song." In the same article,Cather says of the first four lines of the last stanza of "Hylas:" "On a first reading one might say they recalled something of Keats' vividness, but of what a graver color and how infinitely more restrained!"
    Note Source: Gazette 11/30/1902; Gazette 11/30/1902


  83. Hyperion

  84. Author: Keats, John
    Title: Hyperion
    Date: 1820
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: "Compare Kipling's best verses with the first book of Hyperion, or with the best parts of Sordello, and he becomes mere opera bouffe, vaudeville."
    Note Source: Journal 5/16/1897


    An Iceland Fisherman

  1. Author: Loti, Pierre
    Title: An Iceland Fisherman
    Date: 1902
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Original title Pecheur d'Islande . Loti was one of the authors Cather assigned to Fred Otte when she was tutoring him in Pittsburgh.
    Note Source: Willa Cather Remembered 45


  2. Ickery Ann and Other Boys and Girls

  3. Author: Peattie, Ella W.
    Title: Ickery Ann and Other Boys and Girls
    Date: 1899
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather said that after so many "violet musings" about children she was pleased with these stories for "kids."
    Note Source: Leader 4/22/1899


  4. The Idiot

  5. Author: Dostoevsky, Fyodor
    Title: The Idiot
    Date: 1868
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather finds The Idiot "disgusting."
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #242


  6. Il Fuoco

  7. Author: D'Annunzio, Gabriele
    Title: Il Fuoco
    Date: 1900
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather:  Il Fuoco (translated as The Flame of Life) is an erotic novel based on D'Annunzio's relationship with the actress Eleonora Duse. Cather calls it "a shameless sale of confidence of the most sacred kind for money, a savage and shameless attack upon a woman who is still living and who is ill and unhappy."
    Note Source: Courier 8/24/1901


  8. Iliad

  9. Author: Homer
    Title: Iliad
    Date: c. 750 BCE
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: According to Lewis, Cather read the Iliad, Virgil, and Ovid with William Ducker, the town dreamer (and "failure") while living in Red Cloud. In Alexander's Bridge, Alexander does not want to become "a Nestor de pontibus," a Nestor of bridges; in Homer's Iliad Nestor is too old to fight, so instead inspires soldiers through his storytelling. In "The Professor's Commencement" the narrator describes Emerson Graves as a young man "with the strength of Ulysses and the courage of Hector . . . ."
    Note Source: Lewis 21; Alexander's Bridge Chap. 3; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 291


  10. Il Penseroso

  11. Author: Milton, John
    Title: Il Penseroso
    Date: 1631
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In the Epilogue to Alexander's Bridge, Lucius Wilson characterizes Winifred Alexander's grief for her husband by recalling line 42 from Il Penseroso: "Forget thyself to Marble."
    Note Source: Alexander's Bridge Epilogue


  12. In a Balcony

  13. Author: Browning, Robert
    Title: In a Balcony
    Date: 1855
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In an interview with actress Minnie Maddern Fiske, Cather recites "the first few lines of one of the Queen's speeches to Constance."
    Note Source: Courier 1/14/1899


  14. "The Indifference of the Miller of Hofbau"

  15. Author: Hope, Anthony (Anthony Hope Hawkins)
    Title: "The Indifference of the Miller of Hofbau"
    Date: 1896
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Mr. Hawkins seems to cherish an author's usual fondness for his more unpopular works, for when he read from the Princess Osra stories, he selected the least liked and probably the least deserving, 'The Miller of Hofbau.'" Anthony Hope is the pseudonym of Sir Anthony Hope Hawkins; the story appears in his collection The Heart of Princess Osra.
    Note Source: Courier 11/13/1897


  16. In Divers Tones

  17. Author: Roberts, Charles G.D.
    Title: In Divers Tones
    Date: 1887
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather calls the poems in this collection "pedantic and imitative."
    Note Source: Gazette 11/30/1902


  18. Ingomar, The Barbarian

  19. Author: Halm, Friedrich
    Title: Ingomar, The Barbarian
    Date: 1880
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In a 1929 letter to Omaha World-Herald editor Harvey Newbranch (published in the newspaper), Cather comments, "We got the old plays in the same day [sic.] done by living people, and often by people who were quite in earnest. My Partner, The Corsican Brothers, Ingomar, Damon and Pythias, The Count of Monte Cristo."
    Note Source: World-Herald 10/27/1929


  20. In the Cage

  21. Author: James, Henry
    Title: In the Cage
    Date: 1898
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "He treats the girl in the cage quite as respectfully as he would treat a princess of blood, and one feels the same courteous, unsparing hand that did such eminent justice to poor little Pinnie in The Princess Casamassima.
    Note Source: Leader 12/2/1898


  22. In the Midst of Life: Tales of Soldiers and Civilians

  23. Author: Bierce, Ambrose
    Title: In the Midst of Life: Tales of Soldiers and Civilians
    Date: 1891
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "In each story there is a single, deadly effect, and not one word is wasted for any other purpose, not one sentence written that does not drive you toward that final shock. It is seldom one's good fortune to meet more perfect workmanship."
    Note Source: Leader 3/25/1898


  24. Intimate Memories

  25. Author: Luhan, Mabel Dodge
    Title: Intimate Memories
    Date: 1933
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather compares the Buffalo section to Lorenzo in Taos.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1036


  26. "Into the Woods My Master Went"

  27. Author: Lanier, Sidney
    Title: "Into the Woods My Master Went"
    Date: 1880
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: "Mr. Aldrich's 'Memory,' a little masterpiece of ten lines, Emerson's 'April,' Poe's 'To Helen,' and Sidney Lanier's 'Into the Wood[s] My Master Went' will outlast many of the more ambitious efforts of our earlier poets."
    Note Source: Gazette 11/30/1902


  28. "The Irish Washerwoman"

  29. Title: "The Irish Washerwoman"
    Genre: song
    Note Relating to Cather: In My Mortal Enemy, Myra Henshawe stops to listen to a street musician play "The Irish Washerwoman" on his penny whistle. The popular folksong has many versions and roots that may go back to the 17th century. The name "The Irish Washerwoman" has been first found in 1795.
    Note Source: My Mortal Enemy Part I, Chap. 3


  30. The Ironmaster

  31. Author: Pinero, Arthur Wing
    Title: The Ironmaster
    Date: 1884
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: The play was adapted by Arthur Wing Pinero from George Ohnet's novel Le Maitre de forges (1882). A "little less morbid" than Pinero's previous play, this "begins with married misery and ends with an embrace."
    Note Source: Journal 2/7/1894


  32. The Island

  33. Author: Whiteing, Richard
    Title: The Island
    Date: 1888
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "It is a luxury to recognize the hand of a scholar and a thinker in type."
    Note Source: Leader 12/2/1899


  34. Ivanhoe

  35. Author: Scott, Sir Walter
    Title: Ivanhoe
    Date: 1819
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1897 Home Monthly article Cather writes: "Anyone who has never sat in the hall of Cedric the Saxon, never laughed with the poor jester, never watched the fight from the window beside Rebecca of York, has missed some of the good things of life." In an 1899 Courier article Cather writes: "Consider, for instance, the masterly and yet laborious method by which Scott constructs his stage, assembles his dramatis personae and produces his atmosphere."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 2/1897; Courier 8/26/1899


    "Jack the Giant Killer"

  1. Title: "Jack the Giant Killer"
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Jack of "Jack-a-boy" likes the story of Theseus better than that of Jack and his giant.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 320


  2. Jane Eyre

  3. Author: Bronte, Charlotte
    Title: Jane Eyre
    Date: 1847
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Among these old masterpieces there is one too little read of late, but which will hold its place as long as the language stands. I speak of Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 1/1898


  4. Janice Meredith: A Story of the American Revolution

  5. Author: Ford, Paul Leicester
    Title: Janice Meredith: A Story of the American Revolution
    Date: 1899
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In a 1900 article in Courier, Cather says Paul Ford "has so vulgarized history and so caricatured human nature." In "The Hundred Worst Books and They That Wrote Them," the author writes: "If there are not more than a hundred of them in themselves I should surely put into the category of poor books most of these insincere historical romances, from sweet Janice and When Knighthood Was in Flower down to the least successful and least convincing of the lot."
    Note Source: Courier 3/24/1900; "The Hundred Worst Books and They That Wrote Them"


  6. Jeanne d"Arc

  7. Author: Murray, T.D., ed.
    Title: Jeanne d"Arc
    Date: 1902
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: A line from one of Jeanne's answers to the inquisitors (March 1, 1431) appears in One of Ours: "The voice is beautiful, sweet and low, and it speaks in the French tongue."
    Note Source: One of Ours Book I, Chap. 11


  8. Jerusalem Delivered

  9. Author: Tasso, Torquato
    Title: Jerusalem Delivered
    Date: 1581
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: "Homer could only have written after the heroic age, not before it, and there were, perforce, crusades before Tasso could write Jerusalem Delivered. Our poets are always a generation or two behind us."
    Note Source: Journal 5/16/1897


  10. "Jesse James"

  11. Author: Sandburg, Carl
    Title: "Jesse James"
    Date: 1927
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In One of Ours, Mahailey sings a line as it appears in Carl Sandburg's The American Songbag.
    Note Source: One of Ours Book I, Chap. 3


  12. Jesuit Relations

  13. Title: Jesuit Relations
    Date: 1924, rep.
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In a leter, Cather recommends Jesuit Relations. In Shadows on the Rock, Catherine de Saint-Augustin wished to go to Canada after reading the Jesuit Relations (year not specified).
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1085; Shadows on the Rock I


  14. Joe's Luck

  15. Author: Alger, Horatio, Jr.
    Title: Joe's Luck
    Date: 1888
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Old Mrs. Harris," Albert Templeton offers to read Grandma Harris his "'boy's book.'"
    Note Source: Obscure Destinies 151


  16. John Burnet of Barnes

  17. Author: Buchan, John
    Title: John Burnet of Barnes
    Date: 1898
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather reviewed it in the 12/2/1898 Leader.
    Note Source: World and the Parish 2:718


  18. John Halifax, Gentleman

  19. Author: Mulock, Dinah Maria
    Title: John Halifax, Gentleman
    Date: 1856
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather calls John Halifax, Gentleman "that dear old romance of the last generation," and observes that "many a young girl will yet think it the sweetest romance she has ever read."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 1/1897


  20. John Marmaduke

  21. Author: Church, Samuel Haraden
    Title: John Marmaduke
    Date: 1897
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "This year a reputable house has published [Church's] historical novel, John Marmaduke, a story of Cromwell's time, in which one of the characters remarks that he was 'raised in Ireland,' and in which the fair heroine is called 'Miss Catherine' throughout. In a very casual reading I found some two hundred or more of the grossest anachronisms."
    Note Source: Courier 12/18/1897


  22. Johnson without Boswell

  23. Author: Kingsmill, Hugh
    Title: Johnson without Boswell
    Date: 1941
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather recommends Johnson without Boswell to Alexander Woollcott.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1533


  24. "The Jolly Beggars"

  25. Author: Burns, Robert
    Title: "The Jolly Beggars"
    Date: 1785
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Dr. Archie "loved the poetry of Robert Burns," especially "The Jolly Beggars."
    Note Source: Song of the Lark Part I, Chap. 12


  26. Joseph and His Brothers

  27. Author: Mann, Thomas
    Title: Joseph and His Brothers
    Date: 1933-44
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather's essay "'Joseph and His Brothers'" reviews the first two volumes of Mann's tetrology of Joseph, or, as Cather says, his volumes of Jacob.
    Note Source: Not Under Forty 96-122


  28. Joseph in Egypt

  29. Author: Mann, Thomas
    Title: Joseph in Egypt
    Date: 1936
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather enjoyed Joseph in Egypt "very much."
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1331


  30. Journey for Margaret

  31. Author: White, W. L.
    Title: Journey for Margaret
    Date: 1941
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: White's Journey for Margaret appears in a list at the top of a letter.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1563


  32. The Journey of Coronado, 1540-1542

  33. Author: Winship, George Parker
    Title: The Journey of Coronado, 1540-1542
    Date: 1922
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Source for Death Comes for the Archbishop.
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay" 349-50


  34. Jude the Obscure

  35. Author: Hardy, Thomas
    Title: Jude the Obscure
    Date: 1895
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "I admire Thomas Hardy; I admire the lofty conception of Tess of the d'Urbervilles, the finished execution of A Pair of Blue Eyes, the beautiful simplicity of Far from the Madding Crowd. But for Hearts Insurgent I have no forgiveness." Hearts Insurgent was titled The Simpletons when the first installment appeared; Cather liked it no better when it appeared in book form as Jude the Obscure (see her Nebraska State Journal piece of 2/22/1896).
    Note Source: Courier 10/5/1895, Journal 2/2/1896


  36. Julius Caesar

  37. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title:  Julius Caesar
    Date: 1623
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In "A Death in the Desert," Katharine Gaylord's last words are the words of the dying Brutus: "For ever and forever, farewell, Cassius. If we do meet again, why we shall smile; If not, why then, this parting was well made." (V:1, ll. 116-118).
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 216


    Kansas City Star

  1. Title: Kansas City Star
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Soldiers in One of Ours eagerly read about the war in a clipping from the Kansas City Star. In "Two Friends," Dillon and Trueman both read the Star.
    Note Source: One of Ours Book II, Chap. 5; Obscure Destinies 180


  2. "Katharina"

  3. Author: Heine, Heinrich
    Title: "Katharina"
    Date: 1844
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In Lucy Gayheart, Clement Sebastian quotes a line from this poem after he parts from Lucy. It appears in Heine's Neue Gedichte.
    Note Source: Lucy Gayheart Book I, Chap. 18


  4. Kean, or Disorder and Genius

  5. Author: Dumas pere, Alexandre
    Title: Kean, or Disorder and Genius
    Date: 1836
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather, on The Royal Box, adapted by Charles Coghlan from Dumas' 1836 comedy Kean, or Disorder and Genius: "In his adaptation Mr. Coghlan has unfortunately weakened the love story, which is none too fervid in the original, but he has given the play something that Dumas never did—atmosphere, that rare and elusive quality, that volatile, indefinable something which gives one the actual impression of a given time and society."
    Note Source: Courier 4/30/1898


  6. "Keats"

  7. Author: Reese, Lizette Woodworth
    Title: "Keats"
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather says Reese must have had "a strong feeling, a hot conviction, a keen purpose" while writing her sonnet.
    Note Source: Gazette 11/30/1902


  8. A Kentucky Cardinal

  9. Author: Allen, James Lane
    Title: A Kentucky Cardinal
    Date: 1894
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "There are some things in life one really cannot afford to miss, especially when they are to be had for a dollar, and A Kentucky Cardinal is one of them...."
    Note Source: Home Monthly April 1897


  10. Kidnapped

  11. Author: Stevenson, Robert Louis
    Title: Kidnapped
    Date: 1886
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In a letter, Cather recommends Stevenson's Kidnapped for students. In One of Ours, Claude Wheeler recognizes the heather in France from his reading of Kidnapped.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1306; One of Ours Book V, Chap. 6


  12. King Arthur

  13. Title: King Arthur
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Godfrey St. Peters remarks to Lillian that during "Age of Chivalry--King Arthur's knights,"..."some feeling grew up that a man should do fine deeds and not speak of them...."
    Note Source: The Professor's House Book I, Chap. 3


  14. King Henry IV, Part I

  15. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: King Henry IV, Part I
    Date: 1598
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Henry Grenfell, in "Before Breakfast" is insulted when his son, on seeing that his father had packed King Henry IV, Part I asks him, "Light reading?"
    Note Source: The Old Beauty and Others 153


  16. King John

  17. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: King John
    Date: 1623
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In My Mortal Enemy, Myra Henshawe likes to "lie back and repeat the old ones she knew by heart, the long declamations from Richard II or King John" when she is tired. In a piece in Courier, Cather quotes from Act III, scene I, as an epigraph for a column on composer Ethelbert Nevin.
    Note Source: My Mortal Enemy Book II, Chap. 3; Courier 2/5/1898


  18. King Lear

  19. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: King Lear
    Date: 1608
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: According to A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather, Cather wants to quote "Fortune, turn thy wheel" when she reads Zona Gale's book. In My Mortal Enemy, Myra Henshawe likes to visit what she calls "Gloucester's Cliff": "Why, Nellie!" [Myra] exclaimed, "it's like the cliff in Lear, Gloucester's cliff, so it is!"
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #991; My Mortal Enemy Part II, Chap. 2


  20. "The Kings"

  21. Author: Guiney, Louise Imogen
    Title: "The Kings"
    Date: 1893
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather calls "The Kings" "exalted in sentiment."
    Note Source: Gazette 11/30/1902


  22. Kings in Exile

  23. Author: Daudet, Alphonse
    Title: Kings in Exile
    Date: 1879
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1894 Journal article, Cather writes: "Anyone who has read and liked Daudet's Kings in Exile will find in [Stevenson's] Prince Otto deep and lasting pleasure." In an 1897 Home Monthly article, Cather writes: "It is a story of maternal love, and nowhere has that sacred theme been handled more reverentially."
    Note Source: Journal 12/23/1894; Home Monthly 3/1897


  24. "The Knot Hole"

  25. Author: Fisher, Dorothy Canfield
    Title: "The Knot Hole"
    Date: 1943
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather has read Fisher's article about France in the Yale Review.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1624


  26. "The Kreutzer Sonata"

  27. Author: Tolstoy, Leo
    Title: "The Kreutzer Sonata"
    Date: 1889
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: According to O Pioneers! Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay," in a letter to H.L. Mencken, "Cather writes that when she was fourteen she came upon four of Tolstoy's works — Anna Karenina, The Cossacks, The Death of Ivan Ilyich, and The Kreutzer Sonata — and for the next three years read them over and over again. She says that this reading so strongly colored the way she saw her own world in America that she eventually turned to a long apprenticeship with Henry James and Mrs. Wharton to get over it. Yet in writing O Pioneers!, she wonders if she has really recovered from the Russian influence." The title of Tolstoy's story refers to Beethoven's Sonata in A minor, opus 47, for piano and violin. In The Song of the Lark III, the story does not make Thea Kronborg "feel any more cheerful. She threw it aside with hatred. She could not believe it was written by the same man who wrote the novel that had thrilled her," Anna Karenina.
    Note Source: O Pioneers! Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay"; Song of the Lark Part III, Chap. 5


  28. Kristin Lavransdatter

  29. Author: Undset, Sigrid
    Title:  Kristin Lavransdatter
    Date: 1920-22
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather appreciates that Kristin Lavransdatter is now in three volumes instead of one.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1732


    L'Aiglon

  1. Author: Rostand, Edmond
    Title: L'Aiglon
    Date: 1900
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather says "the esprit francais is so large and vital a part of this play that it is peculiarly difficult for an English or American company."
    Note Source: Journal 1/27/1901


  2. L'Arlesienne

  3. Author: Daudet, Alphonse
    Title: L'Arlesienne
    Date: 1872
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "By the English-speaking world Daudet is known chiefly as a novelist; in France his rank as a dramatist is almost as high. The only one of his dramas which has been produced in America is L'Arlesienne which Minnie Maddern Fiske played under the rather inadequate title of The Liar.
    Note Source: Courier 1/22/1898


  4. L'Education sentimentale

  5. Author: Flaubert, Gustave
    Title: L'Education sentimentale
    Date: 1870
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather discusses Flaubert's works with his niece Madame Franklin Grout.
    Note Source: Not Under Forty 18-21


  6. L'Homme Qui Rit

  7. Author: Hugo, Victor
    Title: L'Homme Qui Rit
    Date: 1869
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: On L'Homme Qui Rit (The Man Who Laughs), or ("as it is sometimes called") By Order of the King: "even Hugo's warmest admirers find it hard to forgive him the gratuitous unpleasantness of that book."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 2/1898


  8. "La Barbe Bleue"

  9. Author: Perrault, Charles
    Title: "La Barbe Bleue"
    Date: 1697
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Eleanor's House," Harriet Westfield recalls "the door of the chamber"--the door that Bluebeard tells his current wife not to open--when she thinks of what will be required of Harold Forscythe's second wife. In "The Treasure of Far Island, "Douglass Burnham quotes from the story of Bluebeard when his mother forbids him to open the refrigerator.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 97; 269


  10. "La Belle au Bois Dormant"

  11. Author: Perrault, Charles
    Title: "La Belle au Bois Dormant"
    Date: 1697
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Treasure of Far Island," Douglass Burnham asks Margie Van Dyck if she were playing the sleeping beauty, and in My Mortal Enemy I, Nellie Birdseye likens Driscoll's garden to the "Sleeping Beauty's palace."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 273; My Mortal Enemy Part I, Chap. 2


  12. La bete humaine

  13. Author: Zola, Emile
    Title: La bete humaine
    Date: 1890
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Mentions "Zola's last novel" in a piece for the Nebraska State Journal, "In the Midst of Life."
    Note Source: Journal 12/3/1893


  14. La Comedie humaine

  15. Author: Balzac, Honore de
    Title: La Comedie humaine
    Date: 1842
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "A Resurrection" the narrator is probably alluding to this series of novels when he refers to life as "this little comedie humaine."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 426


  16. La Duchesse de Langeais

  17. Author: Balzac, Honore de
    Title: La Duchesse de Langeais
    Date: 1833-34
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Song of the Lark, Dr. Archie prefers Sir Walter Scott's Constance de Beverley and the minstrel girl in "The Maid of Perth" to Balzac's Duchess de Langeais.
    Note Source: The Song of the Lark Book I Chap. 12


  18. The Lady of Lyons

  19. Author: Bulwer-Lytton, Edward
    Title: The Lady of Lyons
    Date: 1838
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In One of Ours, Wilhelmina Schroeder-Schatz likens Claude Wheeler to Claude Melnotte, the name of the hero of Bulwer-Lytton's comedy. In an 1898 Courier article, Cather writes: "Now the Lady of Lyons is not a great play; Bulwer was not a great man. But it certainly discounts half the stuff that is put on the bo ards today."
    Note Source: One of Ours Book I, Chap. 10; Courier 3/5/1898


  20. A Lady of Quality

  21. Author: Burnett, Frances Hodgson
    Title: A Lady of Quality
    Date: 1896
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "One of the most unsatisfactory attempts I ever read...a book frankly immoral and unpardonably faulty in style and construction."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 10/1897


  22. Lady Windermere's Fan

  23. Author: Wilde, Oscar
    Title: Lady Windermere's Fan
    Date: 1892
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1894 Journal article Cather writes: "As a play Lady Windermere's Fan is very poorly constructed....As a piece of literature the play is exceedingly clever." In a December 1894 Journal article Cather writes: "As to the play, it amuses one even more on a second seeing than on a first, and the falseness of it jars less." But while she again appreciates his cleverness and facility with language, she charges that "One thing nature did not give Mr. Wilde — a heart." In an 1895 Journal article Cather writes: "We will have no more such plays as Lady Windermere's Fan, no more such stories as The Picture of Dorian Gray. We can do without them."
    Note Source: Journal 6/5/1894; Journal 12/18/1894; Journal 5/19/1895


  24. Lalla Rookh

  25. Author: Moore, Thomas
    Title: Lalla Rookh
    Date: 1888
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "One scarcely hears of [Thomas] Moore now, but he was a power in his own generation. I don't believe that young people will ever cease to delight in Lalla Rookh."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 6/1897


  26. "A la Malibran"

  27. Author: Musset, Alfred de
    Title: "A la Malibran"
    Date: 1850
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather closes a piece on Minnie Maddern Fiske's Tess with her own translation of four stanzas of "A la Malibran," an ode by Alfred de Musset on French opera singer Maria Malibran.
    Note Source: Courier 12/11/1897


  28. La Morte Amoureuse

  29. Author: Gautier, Theophile
    Title: La Morte Amoureuse
    Date: 1845
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Count of Crow's Nest," Harold Buchanan is reading La Morte Amoureuse.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 453


  30. "La Petite Chaperone Rouge"

  31. Author: Perrault, Charles
    Title: "La Petite Chaperone Rouge"
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Song of the Lark, when Dr. Archie sees Thea Kronborg on stage after many years of her musical career, he feels that the Thea he knew has been "devoured," just as Little Red Ridinghood had by the wolf.
    Note Source: The Song of the Lark Book VI, chap. 4


  32. La Princesse Lointaine

  33. Author: Rostand, Edmond
    Title: La Princesse Lointaine
    Date: 1895
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: According to a Courier piece, Rostand's first play, La Princesse Lointaine, "failed because it was a poem and not a play." Cather reviewed the play for the Nebraska State Journal in 1895.
    Note Source: Courier 4/5/1899; Journal 5/5/1895


  34. The Last Million

  35. Author: Hay, Ian
    Title: The Last Million
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Although Cather seems not to have found any useful material in Hay," she asked Greenslet for a copy of his book in a letter 31 August 1919.
    Note Source: One of Ours "Historical Essay" Scholarly Edition 649


  36. The Last Puritan

  37. Author: Santayana, George
    Title: The Last Puritan
    Date: 1935
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Although his "technical books" are not readable for her, she is reading The Last Puritan.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1316


  38. La Tentation de Saint Antoine

  39. Author: Flaubert, Gustave
    Title: La Tentation de Saint Antoine
    Date: 1874
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: George Seibel: " . . . We ploughed through our adored Flaubert. Madam Bovary wasn't so hard, but La Tentation de Saint Antoine and Salammbo proved most refractory until I discovered that a Latin lexicon and classical dictionary were more help than Littre." Cather also discusses this work with Flaubert's niece Madame Franklin Grout in "A Chance Meeting."
    Note Source: Willa Cather Remembered 13; Not Under Forty 17.


  40. The Latimers: A Tale of the Western Insurrection of 1794

  41. Author: McCook, Henry C.
    Title: The Latimers: A Tale of the Western Insurrection of 1794
    Date: 1898
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "The theme of the story is the Whiskey Insurrection of 1794; the scene is laid in and about Pittsburgh. The historical part of the novel seems to have been carefully worked up, but as a story it has been a long time since I have read anything more tedious."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 1/1898


  42. La Tosca

  43. Author: Sardou, Victorien
    Title: La Tosca
    Date: 1887
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: According to an 1897 Journal article, Cather reviewed Fanny Davenport's productions of several plays by Victorien Sardou: Fedora, La Tosca, Cleopatra, Madame Sans Gene, and Gismonda: "And there is only one Sardou. The matronly Fanny Davenport has been giving him to us all week and he is just as great as ever — in spite of Fanny." In a 1901 Journal article, Cather saw Sarah Bernhardt's performance of it at the end of her 1901 D.C. season.
    Note Source: Journal 1/31/1897; Journal 2/4/1901


  44. Laughing Boy

  45. Author: LaFarge, Oliver
    Title: Laughing Boy
    Date: 1930
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In a letter Cather tells Greenslet that she has enjoyed Laughing Boy. In another letter Cather recommends Laughing Boy to Wilbur Cross. In a letter Cather asks Greenslet to send Laughing Boy to Jan Hambourg.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1002; A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1005; A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1021


  46. The Laughing Horse

  47. Author: Johnson, Spud
    Title: The Laughing Horse
    Date: 1921-1939
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: The satirical magazine made Cather laugh for the first time in a long time.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1411


  48. Leading Facts of New Mexican History

  49. Author: Twitchell, Ralph Emerson
    Title: Leading Facts of New Mexican History
    Date: 1911
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Source for Death Comes for the Archbishop.
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay" 349-50


  50. Leaves of Grass

  51. Author: Whitman, Walt
    Title: Leaves of Grass
    Date: 1855
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In My Mortal Enemy, Nellie Birdseye reminds Myra Henshawe that she likes Walt Whitman. Myra calls him a "dirty old man." In an 1896 Journal article Cather writes: "His Leaves of Grass is a sort of dictionary of the English language, and in it is the name of everything in creation set down with great reverence but without any particular connection. But however ridiculous Whitman may be there is a primitive elemental force about him... If a joyous elephant should break forth into song, his lay would probably be very much like Whitman's famous 'Song of Myself'"; Cather quotes from the 1891-2 edition of "Song of Myself."
    Note Source: My Mortal Enemy Part II, Chap. 3; Journal 1/19/1896


  52. "Le Bonheur"

  53. Author: Maupassant, Guy de
    Title: "Le Bonheur"
    Date: 1884
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In a 1900 Library article Cather says that she tried to discuss it with Stephen Crane while she was still a student at Nebraska State. In an 1899 Leader article Cather says Maupassant's incidental description of Corsica "suggests more of the country than all the volumes that have been written about it."
    Note Source: Library 6/23/1900; Leader 5/27/1899


  54. Le feu (Under Fire)

  55. Author: Barbusse, Henri
    Title: Le feu (Under Fire)
    Date: Fr. 1916, Eng. 1917
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: A likely source for One of Ours.
    Note Source: One of Ours "Historical Essay" Scholarly Edition 652


  56. Le Lys Rouge

  57. Author: France, Anatole
    Title: Le Lys Rouge
    Date: 1905
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In a review of The Professor's House in "Historical Essay," the author writes: "In her journalistic days she had highly recommended to her readers [Anatole] France's The Crime of Sylvester Bonnard and lauded his election to the French Academy. She also had praised his novel Thais, and her Pittsburgh friend George Seibel remembered that they had read together France's Le Lys rouge (The Red Lily)." In World and the Parish, the author writes: "She went once or twice a week to read French at the home of her friends, the Seibels, and George Seibel recalled that during these orgies of reading they indulged 'in devil's food cake like Anatole France's Le Lys Rouge.'"
    Note Source: The Professor's House Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay" 321; World and the Parish 1:340


  58. Le Mannequin d'osier

  59. Author: France, Anatole
    Title: Le Mannequin d'osier
    Date: 1897
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: The protagonist, M. Bergeret, is, like St. Peter in The Professor's House, a professor who has a wicker-work dress form in his study; "If [the dress forms] were good enough for Monsieur Bergeret, they are certainly good enough for me."
    Note Source: The Professor's House Book I, Chap. 1


  60. The Leopard's Spots

  61. Author: Dixon, Thomas
    Title: The Leopard's Spots
    Date: 1902
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Annie Wooley reads this novel as Paul Wanning sleeps in the afternoon in "Her Boss."
    Note Source: Uncle Valentine and Other Stories 132


  62. Le Rêve

  63. Author: Zola, Emile
    Title: Le Rêve
    Date: 1888
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Calls it "a book that every girl should read when she is eighteen, and then again when she is eighty." Also calls it "that tender adolescent story of love and purity and youth."
    Note Source: Courier 1/13/1900; Courier 4/7/1900


  64. Les Miserables

  65. Author: Hugo, Victor
    Title: Les Miserables
    Date: 1862
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1897 Courier article, Cather quotes from Book V, Chapter XI in a piece on Heine, and notes that the novel had "just been thrown out of the high school library of Phildadelphia as an unfitting work for youthful minds"; concludes that "If one took things hard in a land where Heine fountains are forbidden, and Les Miserables thrown out of the libraries, and Lillian Russell considered a great artist... there would be nothing left to one but suicide or insanity." In an 1897 Home Monthly article Cather says, "I never feel the spring come back and see the violets on the stands at the street corners, and hear the birds begin to call to each other, that I don't go back and read Les Miserables over again."
    Note Source: Courier 11/6/1897; Home Monthly 4/1897


  66. Les Rois en Exil

  67. Author: Daudet, Alphonse
    Title: Les Rois en Exil
    Date: 1879
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Prodigies,"Nelson Mackenzie recalls Daudet's novel, Les Rois en Exil, as he watches Kate Massey push her children's careers.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 418


  68. "The Lesson of the Master"

  69. Author: James, Henry
    Title: "The Lesson of the Master"
    Date: 1892
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "I have always thought [F. Marion Crawford] suggested Henry James' melancholy 'Lesson of the Master.'"
    Note Source: Courier 9/21/1895


  70. Letters to Dead Authors

  71. Author: Lang, Andrew
    Title: Letters to Dead Authors
    Date: 1893
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Count of Crow's Nest," as he watches Count de Koch, Harold Buchanan recalls a phrase from Lang's letter "To Edgar Allan Poe": "A gentleman and canaille.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 452


  72. Lettres

  73. Author: Sevigne, Madame de (Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, Marquise de Sevigne)
    Title: Lettres
    Date: 1726
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In Death Comes for the Archbishop IX, "the old archbishop" enjoys hearing Bernard read de Sevigne's letters.
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Book IX, Chap. 4


  74. Lettres de Flaubert a sa Niece Caroline

  75. Author: Flaubert, Gustave
    Title: Lettres de Flaubert a sa Niece Caroline
    Date: 1910
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: After she returns to Paris from meeting Madame Grout, Cather rereads the letters from Flaubert to his niece .
    Note Source: Not Under Forty 35-29


  76. Lettres de la Reverende Mere Marie de l'Incarnation letter no. 114 (August 12, 1653)

  77. Author: Richaudeau, Pierre
    Title: Lettres de la Reverende Mere Marie de l'Incarnation letter no. 114 (August 12, 1653)
    Date: 1876
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: The epigraph to Shadows on the Rock is from letter no. 114 (August 12, 1653) of Marie Guyard (Marie de l'Incarnation). Its translation is: "You ask me for seeds and bulbs of the flowers of this country. We have some come from France for our garden, not having any here that are very rare or very beautiful. Everything is wild--the flowers as well as the people."
    Note Source: Shadows on the Rock epigraph


  78. Lettres Historiques

  79. Author: Marie de l'Incarnation
    Title: Lettres Historiques
    Date: 1681
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Marie de l'Incarnation (1599-1672) was one of the first female missionaries in the New World; she came to Quebec in 1639. The epigraph to Shadows on the Rock is from a letter to one of her sisters: "You ask me for some flower seeds from this country. We have them sent from France for our garden, as those here are neither very rare nor very beautiful. Everything is wild here, the flowers as well as the men."
    Note Source: Shadows on the Rock epigraph


  80. Le Ventre de Paris

  81. Author: Zola, Emile
    Title: Le Ventre de Paris
    Date: 1873
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Published in English as The Fat and the Thin and then as The French Market-Girl; "It is unfortunate that the book should be presented under titles which can appeal only to shop girls, as it represents Zola at his best, and contains comparatively little that is offensive to Anglo-Saxon taste."
    Note Source: Leader 5/27/1898


  82. The Life and Death of Richard Yea-and-Nay

  83. Author: Hewlett, Maurice
    Title: The Life and Death of Richard Yea-and-Nay
    Date: 1900
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather says "...the lamentable collapse of the latter third of Richard Yea-and-Nay demonstrated that he has not sufficiently matured to be absolutely trustworthy and that his taste is capable of very gross lapses."
    Note Source: Courier 8/10/1901


  84. Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley

  85. Author: Huxley, Thomas Henry
    Title: Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley
    Date: 1901
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: The story of "The Professor's Commencement" opens with Emerson Graves tapping the uncut pages of Huxley's Life and Letters with his paper knife.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 283


  86. Life of Bishop Laval

  87. Author: Scott, Abbé Henry Arthur
    Title: Life of Bishop Laval
    Date: 1926
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Recommends Life of Bishop Laval.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1085


  88. Life of Fray Junípero Serra

  89. Author: Palou, Francisco
    Title: Life of Fray Junípero Serra
    Date: 1787
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: The 1884 translation of Francisco Palou's Life of Fray Junípero Serra (1787) was a source for Death Comes for the Archbishop.
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay" 349-50


  90. Life of Jesse James

  91. Author: Stevens, D.W. (pseu. Musick)
    Title: Life of Jesse James
    Date: 1891
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In My Antonia, Jim Burden is reading such a book about Jesse James that Jake has bought on the train, probably one of a series called "Five Cent Wide Awake Library" sold on railroad trains in the 1880s (March 431).
    Note Source: My Antonia Part I, Chap. 1


  92. Life of Marlborough

  93. Author: Churchill, Winston
    Title: Life of Marlborough
    Date: 1938
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather says that she considers Life of Marlborough "a very great work."
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1491


  94. The Life of the Right Reverend Joseh P. Machebeuf

  95. Author: Howlett, William Joseph
    Title: The Life of the Right Reverend Joseh P. Machebeuf
    Date: 1908
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In a letter, Cather says that she relied on Howlett for her understanding of her "two priests" in Death Comes for the Archbishop. In Death Comes for the Archbishop, John March (22) reports that Father Joseph Machebeuf, the prototype for Joseph Vaillant, told the story of the white mules to Father Gabriel Ussel and that Vaillant's motto "rest in action" is an oft-repeated phrase in The Life of the Right Reverend Joseph P. Machebeuf. In "Historical Essay," there is a reference for Death Comes for the Archbishop; see Cather's November 23, 1927 letter to the Commonweal.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #920; Death Comes for the Archbishop Book I, Chap. 3; Book II Chap. 1; Death Comes for the Archbishop Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay" 342


  96. A Life of William Shakespeare

  97. Author: Lee, Sidney
    Title: A Life of William Shakespeare
    Date: 1898
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather suggests that William Knapp's biography of George Borrow "will take its place beside Sidney Lee's Shakespeare, though its merits are of a very different order."
    Note Source: Leader 7/15/1899


  98. The Light That Failed

  99. Author: Kipling, Rudyard
    Title: The Light That Failed
    Date: 1890
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "I could understand the hero of The Light that Failed having possessions in a dream world and riding the Thirty-Mile Ride with Maisie, but I cannot understand it in Georgie Cottar and the girl who lisped [in "The Brushwood Boy" (The Day's Work)]."
    Note Source: Courier 4/4/1899


  100. The Lion's Mouth

  101. Author: Carlton, Henry Guy
    Title: The Lion's Mouth
    Date: 1890
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather remarks that Carlton is one of the few younger Ameican dramatists who have a "feeling for language":"There are lines of In the Lion's Mouth and A Gilded Fool that haunt one's memory, words that have an especial fitness for each other."
    Note Source: Journal 8/4/1895


  102. "Litany of Loretto"

  103. Title: "Litany of Loretto"
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Professor's House, Augusta must explain to Godfrey St. Peter that the mystical rose is from the Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary, not from the Magnificat.
    Note Source: The Professor's House Book I, Chap. 9


  104. Little Barefoot

  105. Author: Waldauer, Augustus
    Title: Little Barefoot
    Date: 1863
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Song of the Lark, Ray Kennedy tells Thea Kronborg about seeing the playLittle Barefoot.
    Note Source: The Song of the Lark Book I, Chap. 15


  106. The Little Foxes

  107. Author: Hellman, Lillian
    Title: The Little Foxes
    Date: 1939
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather compares Hellman's The Little Foxes to Akins's Starvation on Red River.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1474


  108. The Little French Girl

  109. Author: Sedgwick, Anne Douglas
    Title: The Little French Girl
    Date: 1924
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather wants Greenslet to send her a copy of The Little French Girl.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #741


  110. Little Lord Fauntleroy

  111. Author: Burnett, Frances Hodgson
    Title: Little Lord Fauntleroy
    Date: 1886
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: mentioned in column, though some may be allusions to the 1888 dramatized version
    Note Source: NSJ; Courier


  112. "The Little Mermaid"

  113. Author: Andersen, Hans Christian
    Title: "The Little Mermaid"
    Date: 1836
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Flavia and Her Artists" Arthur Hamilton tells the story of "The Little Mermaid" to Imogen Willard when she is ill. "The Little Mermaid" is referred to several times.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 161


  114. The Little Minister

  115. Author: Barrie, James M.
    Title: The Little Minister
    Date: 1891
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1895 Courier article, Cather writes: "There was a really strong Scotch novel published a few years ago, though it seems to have been already forgotten by the changeful worshippers of Scotch fiction of the day. I speak of Barrie's Little Minister." In an 1899 Courier article, Cather writes: "Certainly Mr. Barrie's little play is a delightful one, full of quiet, poetic situations, quaint, natural comedy, and with a delightfully literary flavor about it." Cather is describing Barrie's dramatization of his 1891 novel.
    Note Source: Courier 11/30/1895; Courier 3/18/1899


  116. "The Little Woman and the Pedlar"

  117. Author: Mother Goose
    Title: "The Little Woman and the Pedlar"
    Genre: poem
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Song of the Lark, Thea wears a skirt that suggests to Dr. Archie a line from the nursery rhyme: "Cut off her petticoats all round about."
    Note Source: The Song of the Lark Book II, Chap. 4


  118. Little Women

  119. Author: Alcott, Louisa May
    Title: Little Women
    Date: 1868
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Like Jo and Meg in Little Women, [some children] even dramatized and played [Pilgrim's Progress]."
    Note Source: Home Monthly Jan. 1897


  120. Lives

  121. Author: Plutarch (Mestrius Plutarchus)
    Title: Lives
    Date: 75 CE
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In Shadows on the Rock, Euclide Auclaire enjoys reading Plutarch on long winter evenings; in Book III, Cecile and her father "were reading Plutarch this winter, and tonight they were in the middle of the life of Alexander the Great." In The Professor's House, Scott McGregor's "disappointed vanity ate away at his vitals like the Spartan boy's wolf," an allusion to the story of Lycurgus ("The Education of Boys and Men," section 18) (March 587).
    Note Source: Shadows on the Rock Book I, Chap. 2; Book III, Chap. 3; The Professor's House Book I, Chap. 5


  122. Lives of the Saints

  123. Title: Lives of the Saints
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In Shadows on the Rock, Cecile Auclair reads the story of Saint Edmond to Jacques Gaux from her copy of Lives of the Saints. The Lives of the Saints are more properly called legends than fiction.
    Note Source: Shadows on the Rock Book II, Chap. 5


  124. "Locksley Hall"

  125. Author: Tennyson, Alfred, Lord
    Title: "Locksley Hall"
    Date: 1842
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Best Years," the phrase "far as human eye could see," appears twice. Once, when Miss Knighthly is riding through a "land that lay level as far as the eye could see" and once when James Ferguesson is defending his name for his farm: he is looking into the future, he tells his wife, "far as human eye could see." (l. 119)
    Note Source: The Old Beauty and Others 73, 103


  126. London Times

  127. Title: London Times
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: The London Times is mentioned in both "The Affair at Grover Station" and in "The Marriage of Phaedra."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 342; 230


  128. The Longest Years

  129. Author: Undset, Sigrid
    Title: The Longest Years
    Date: 1935
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Compares her childhood with Undset's as presented in Undset's The Longest Years.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1570


  130. Look at All Those Roses

  131. Author: Bowen, Elizabeth
    Title: Look at All Those Roses
    Date: 1941
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather dislikes Bowen's technique and sensibility for her characters.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1787


  132. Lorenzo in Taos

  133. Author: Luhan, Mabel Dodge
    Title: Lorenzo in Taos
    Date: 1932
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather tells Luhan that she has characterized D.H. Lawrence very well. (Cather must have seen a manuscript or proof, because the book was not published until 1932.)
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1036


  134. A Lost Lady of Old Years

  135. Author: Buchan, John
    Title: A Lost Lady of Old Years
    Date: 1899
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather calls the style "a living thing, not to be dissected in cold blood."
    Note Source: Courier 7/29/1899


  136. "The Lost Leader"

  137. Author: Browning, Robert
    Title: "The Lost Leader"
    Date: 1845
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Prodigies," Leschetizky, Harriet Norton's professor, alludes to a line in "The Lost Leader" when Harriet decides to give up her musical career to marry Nelson Mackenzie: "Blot out his name, then, record one lost soul more." In essay on Oscar Wilde after his second sodomy trial, Cather uses Browning's line: "His name is 'Marked with a blot, damned in the book of Heaven.'"
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 412; Courier 9/28/1895


  138. "The Lost Lenore"

  139. Author: Poe, Edgar Allan
    Title: "The Lost Lenore"
    Date: 1845
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Double Birthday," Albert Engelhardt refers to Marguerite Thiesinger as "the lost Lenore."
    Note Source: Uncle Valentine and Other Stories 47


  140. Louisa May Alcott

  141. Author: Anthony, Katherine
    Title: Louisa May Alcott
    Date: 1938
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather says that she is tired of Freudian analyses. She doesn't think that Alcott's seeing naked men when she was a nurse traumatized her.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1400


  142. The Love Affairs of a Bibliomaniac

  143. Author: Field, Eugene
    Title: The Love Affairs of a Bibliomaniac
    Date: 1896
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an article in the Leader, Cather calls it "the best and cheeriest" of Eugene Field's work. According to Willa Cather Remembered, Cather liked it so much that she gave George Seibel a copy of Field's Love Affairs of a Bibliomaniac for Christmas one year in Pittsburgh.
    Note Source: Leader 12/16/1899; Willa Cather Remembered 13


  144. The Love Chase

  145. Author: Knowles, James Sheridan
    Title: The Love Chase
    Date: 1837
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In Cather's story "The Best Years," Evangeline Knightly sees Julia Marlowe in her role as Constance.
    Note Source: The Old Beauty and Others 119


  146. Love Finds the Way

  147. Author: Merington, Marguerite
    Title: Love Finds the Way
    Date: 1898
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Praised Minnie Maddern Fiske's performance.
    Note Source: Courier 12/24/1898


  148. Loyalties

  149. Author: Galsworthy, John
    Title: Loyalties
    Date: 1922
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather speaks of seeing John Galsworthy at the theater.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #625


  150. Lucile

  151. Author: Meredith, Owen
    Title: Lucile
    Date: 1860
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather quotes a fragment of Lucile as a toast to explorer Fridtjof Nansen by Samuel Haraden Church, and describes the quotation as "one of the worst he could have selected, too." The quotation reads: "Not a truth has to art or to science been given,/But brows have ached for it and souls toiled and striven;/And many have striven, and many have failed,/And many died, slain by the truth they assailed."
    Note Source: Courier 12/18/1897


  152. Luria

  153. Author: Browning, Robert
    Title: Luria
    Date: 1846
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1899 Courier article, Cather writes: "For the trained manager is a sort of trained nurse for discouraged genius.... Like Browning's Luria, he is fashioned to do the work of all his several friends, and answer every purpose save his own." In an 1894 Journal article, Cather writes: "If [the artist] has the courage he throws off the yoke of management, if not the strength to work leaves him, and he drifts on,/ Doing the work of all his several friends/ And serving every purpose except his own"; Cather is quoting Browning's Luria.
    Note Source: Courier 7/1/1899; Journal 10/21/1894


  154. "Lyrisches Intermezzo"

  155. Author: Heine, Heinrich
    Title: "Lyrisches Intermezzo"
    Date: 1822-23
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In My Mortal Enemy, Myra Henshawe is referring to this poem ("Lyrische Intermezzo," no. 62, beginning "Am Kreuzweg wird begraben") when she asks Nellie Birdseye to recite Heine's poetry about the "poor-sinner's flower." (See March 347) In The Song of the Lark, Thea Kronborg recites the text (Heine's "Lyrisches Intermezzo," no. 45, beginning "Im leuchtenden Sommermorgen"; the first word should actually be "Am" ). The German is followed by a parenthetical translation: "in the soft-shining summer morning...."
    Note Source: My Mortal Enemy Part II, Chap. 3; Song of the Lark Part I, Chap. 11


    Madame Bovary

  1. Author: Flaubert, Gustave
    Title: Madame Bovary
    Date: 1857
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: When Cather was a grader for the University of Nebraska's prep school, she told Alvin Johnson that Madame Bovary was a book "worth committing to memory." In an article in Courier, Cather writes: "[Alphonse Daudet] left no novel which, in days to come, will carry the conviction and power of Notre Coeur or Madame Bovary or Cousin Pons."
    Note Source: Sergeant 10; Courier 1/22/1898


  2. Madame Sans Gene

  3. Author: Sardou, Victorien
    Title: Madame Sans Gene
    Date: 1894
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Reviewed Fanny Davenport's productions of several plays by Victorien Sardou: Fedora, La Tosca, Cleopatra, Madame Sans Gene, and Gismonda: "And there is only one Sardou. The matronly Fanny Davenport has been giving him to us all week and he is just as great as ever—in spite of Fanny."
    Note Source: Journal 1/31/1897


  4. Madame Sapphira

  5. Author: Saltus, Edgar
    Title: Madame Sapphira
    Date: 1895
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Mr. Edgar Saltus has written a new novel entitled When Dreams Come True. It is rather better than Mr. Saltus' recent work. Certainly it is better than Enthralled [1894], or Madame Sapphira [1895]. It is more pleasant than the police fiction of the former and its aim is a more manly one than getting even with his divorced wife to which he devoted the latter. It is a quiet sort of book without any thrilling episodes, but it has in it the old vigor of style and vivid, unusual use of words which characterized Mr. Saltus in the earlier days when he wrote [The Truth About] Tristem Varick [1888]. It is full of phrases that seem to melt in your mouth as you utter them. Indeed, as usual, one feels much nearer to Mr. Saltus' phrases than his people, and his words seem more alive than his women...."
    Note Source: Journal 7/14/1895


  6. Mademoiselle de Maupin

  7. Author: Gautier, Theophile
    Title: Mademoiselle de Maupin
    Date: 1835
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Coming, Eden Bower!" Eden Bower found "books like 'Sapho' and 'Mademoiselle de Maupin,' secretly sold in paper covers throughout Illinois."
    Note Source: Uncle Valentine and Other Stories 158


  8. Made-to-Order Stories

  9. Author: Fisher, Dorothy Canfield
    Title: Made-to-Order Stories
    Date: 1925
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather has received Fisher's stories.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #807


  10. The Magical City

  11. Author: Akins, Zoe
    Title: The Magical City
    Date: 1916
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather praises the performance she saw.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #352


  12. The Magic Mountain

  13. Author: Mann, Thomas
    Title: The Magic Mountain
    Date: 1924
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather found The Magic Mountain "dull."
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1331


  14. "Magnificat"

  15. Title: "Magnificat"
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Professor's House, Godfrey St. Peter asks Augusta about the "Magnificat." It begins, she tells him, "My soul doth magnify the Lord."
    Note Source: The Professor's House Book I, Chap. 9


  16. "Maid of Athens"

  17. Author: Byron, George Gordon
    Title: "Maid of Athens"
    Date: 1810
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Dr. Archie asks Thea, in The Song of the Lark, if she likes Byron's "Maid of Athens."
    Note Source: The Song of the LarkPart I, Chap. 2


  18. Main Street

  19. Author: Lewis, Sinclair
    Title: Main Street
    Date: 1920
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather tells Carrie Miner Sherwood to "excuse" Sinclair for writing Main Street.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather 525


  20. "The Man at the Edge of Things"

  21. Author: Peattie, Ella W.
    Title: "The Man at the Edge of Things"
    Date: 1899
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "It is certainly the best western story that I have chanced to read."
    Note Source: Courier 11/4/1899


  22. "Mandalay"

  23. Author: Kipling, Rudyard
    Title: "Mandalay"
    Date: 1892
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: "At any rate, I should like to know how many of the men who boarded the transport for the Philippines were repeating "On the Road to Mandalay" under their breath." The poem appears in Barrack-Room Ballads, First Series.
    Note Source: Courier 8/24/1901


  24. A Man From the North

  25. Author: Bennett, Arnold
    Title: A Man From the North
    Date: 1898
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather calls Arnold Bennett's A Man From the North "a curious instance of a bad thing done well."
    Note Source: Courier 7/29/1899


  26. The Man in Black

  27. Author: Weyman, Stanley
    Title: The Man in Black
    Date: 1896
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "If you care for historical romances not overburdened with dry historical names and dates, for a story full of action and resounding with the ring of swords, by all means read The Man in Black."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 1/1897


  28. Manon Lescaut

  29. Author: Prevost, Antoine Francois
    Title: Manon Lescaut
    Date: 1731
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Eleanor's House," Eleanor Forscythe and Harriet Westfield had kept a copy of Prevost's novel in a pillow while they were in convent school.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 102


  30. The Manxman

  31. Author: Caine, Hall
    Title: The Manxman
    Date: 1888
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Cather recommended these romances [Hall Craine's The Bondman (1890), The Manxman (1888) and The Deemster (1888)] to the readers of the Home Monthly, but George Seibel remembered that at this time she enjoyed 'despising Marie Corelli and Hall Craine.'"
    Note Source: World and the Parish 1:353


  32. The Marble Faun

  33. Author: Hawthorne, Nathaniel
    Title: The Marble Faun
    Date: 1860
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "The artist is bound to his native soil more closely than the serf who plods in the furrow.... Hawthorne carried his Puritanism even into Italy, carried it with such conviction and power that the Faun of the Capitol has scarcely smiled so joyously since that grave New Englander looked into his eyes, with mute misunderstanding, across the gulf of so many centuries."
    Note Source: Leader 3/4/1898


  34. Marcella

  35. Author: Ward, Mary (Mrs. Humphry Ward)
    Title: Marcella
    Date: 1894
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Don't read Sir George Tressady, Mrs. Humphry Ward's latest novel. It's not a Christian duty, and it will bore you to death. It is slower and more tedious than Marcella, and there is no point to it when you are done with it.... If you want to read Mrs. Ward, take up David Grieve [1892] again.... The childhood of David and his sister is done with a strong comprehensive touch that recalls George Eliot's matchless treatment of little Tom and Maggie Tulliver."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 5/1897


  36. Marcel Proust: His Life and Work

  37. Author: Pierre-Quint, Leon; Marcel Proust
    Title: Marcel Proust: His Life and Work
    Date: 1927
    Genre: Literary Biography
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather gave a copy to her friend May Willard.
    Note Source: The copy Cather gave Willard survived and has been examined.


  38. March Hares

  39. Author: Frederic, Harold
    Title: March Hares
    Date: 1896
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Calls March Hares an "exquisite London idyl."
    Note Source: Leader 6/10/1899


  40. The Market Place

  41. Author: Frederic, Harold
    Title: The Market Place
    Date: 1899
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1899 edition of Leader, Cather writes: "It is very fitting that Mr. Frederic's last book should be in praise of action ..." In the same article, Cather writes: "Both Gloria Mundi and The Market Place bear unmistakeable evidences of the slack rein and the hasty hand."
    Note Source: Leader 6/10/1899; Leader 6/10/1899


  42. "Mark Twain"

  43. Author: Phelps, William Lyon
    Title: "Mark Twain"
    Date: 1935
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather criticises the Van Wyck Brooks book about Twain. Agrees with Phelps's article in Yale Review. (Vol. XXV, Dec. 1935, #2 291-310)
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1298


  44. Marmion

  45. Author: Scott, Sir Walter
    Title: Marmion
    Date: 1808
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Behind the Singer Tower," Fred Hallet uses a quotation from Marmion to describe Stanley Merryweather's habit of giving jobs to former classmates: "Largess, largess, Lord Marmion , all as he lighted down." In The Song of the Lark, Constance de Beverley, a nun in Scott's dramatic poem, is one of Dr. Archie's "heroines." In "Ardessa," Cather echoes words of Lochinvar: "come out of the west" to describe Marcus O'Mally.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 48; Song of the Lark Part I, Chap. 12; "Ardessa," Uncle Valentine and Other Stories 101


  46. Martha

  47. Author: Flotow, Friedrich von
    Title: Martha
    Date: 1917
    Genre: song
    Note Relating to Cather: In My Antonia, Mrs. Harling explains the opera Martha to the children as she plays it for them. In "Paul's Case," Paul is mesmerized by the allure of the entertainment: "The moment the cracked orchestra beat out the overture from Martha, or jerked at the serenade from Rigoletto, all stupid and ugly things slid from him, and his senses were deliciously, yet delicately fired." In a 1929 article in the World-Herald, Cather writes, "what good luck it was for a country child to hear those tuneful old operas sung by people who were doing their best: The Bohemian Girl, The Chimes of Normandy, Martha, The Mikado."
    Note Source: My Antonia Book II, Chap. 7; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 251; World-Herald 10/27/1929


  48. Mary Stuart

  49. Author: Schiller, Friedrich
    Title: Mary Stuart
    Date: 1801
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Reviewed Helena Modjeska in Mary Stuart: "About the real Mary Stuart the world will always differ; she will remain one of the disputed personages of history. But upon Schiller's marvelous characterization of her the critics of all literatures have but one opinion: that it is the embodiment of the mediaeval ideal of queenliness. It is the creation of a poet rather than a playwright, molded in the ampler proportions of classic art, and yet burning with that intensity which characterized the Romantic movement in German drama." In My Mortal Enemy, Nellie Birdseye recalls that Henena Modjeska played the lead in Maria Stuart.
    Note Source: Leader 11/15/1898; My Mortal Enemy Book I, Chap. 5


  50. "Masque of Anarchy"

  51. Author: Shelley, Percy Bysshe
    Title: "Masque of Anarchy"
    Date: 1832
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In a Nebraska State Journal piece, "The Spirit Which Has Buoyed Me Up," "Mahoon the talker" recites Shelley's "Masque of Anarchy."
    Note Source: Journal 12/3/1893


  52. The Master

  53. Author: Zangwill, Israel
    Title: The Master
    Date: 1895
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather "was familiar with his Dreamers of the Ghetto (1898)—biographies of famous Jews (including her favorite, Heine) who rebelled against orthodox Judaism—and The Master (1895), the story of an artist's struggle up from obscurity."
    Note Source: World and the Parish 1:491


  54. Master and Man

  55. Author: Tolstoy, Leo
    Title: Master and Man
    Date: 1895
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Tolstoi is writing a new novel. Heaven grant that it is not another Master and Man, and yet the deluded old man once wrote Anna Karenina!"
    Note Source: Journal 5/17/1896


  56. The Master Builder

  57. Author: Ibsen, Henrik
    Title: The Master Builder
    Date: 1893
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Compares the mood of The Master Builder to the beginning of Lucy Gayheart.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1257


  58. The Master of Ballantrae

  59. Author: Stevenson, Robert Louis
    Title: The Master of Ballantrae
    Date: 1889
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1894 Journal article, Cather writes: "It is probable that before the advancement of encroaching realism and 'veritism' and all other literary unpleasantness Stevenson will be relegated to the children's bookshelves, along with Scott and Cooper and the elder Dumas....Prince Otto is so seldom mentioned by people whose business it is to mention books that it may be very bad taste to like it. But it has a few very staunch admirers and ought to have many more.... It is not the finished book that The Master of Ballentrae or David Balfour is, but anyone who has read and liked [Alphonse] Daudet's Kings in Exile [1879] will find in Prince Otto deep and lasting pleasure." In a 1901 Courier article, Cather writes: "While young men were scurrying about the world in search of material and adventure, the best of adventure stories came from the sick bed with blood-stained linen where Stevenson wrote Treasure Island and The Master of Ballantrae."
    Note Source: Journal 12/23/1894; Courier 8/17/1901


  60. Master Thaddeus

  61. Author: Mickiewicz, Adam Bernard
    Title: Master Thaddeus
    Date: 1885
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: The epigraph for O Pioneers! is from Mickiewicz's epic poem: "Those fields, colored by various grain!" Pan Tadeusz was originally published in 1834; Cather read (and altered) the 1885 translation
    Note Source: O Pioneers! Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay"


  62. Maud, and Other Poems

  63. Author: Tennyson, Alfred, Lord
    Title: Maud, and Other Poems
    Date: 1855
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In a 1900 Courier article Cather writes: "If Tennyson had gone everyday into his tulip bed and sent his tulip gardener in to work at Maud, I fancy neither Maud nor the tulips would have prospered." In My Antonia, the narrator says "They were handsome girls, had the fresh colour of their country upbringing, and in their eyes that brilliancy which is called--by no metaphor, alas!--'the light of youth.'" ("Maud" part 1, section 5, stanza 2, l. 4).
    Note Source: Courier 3/17/1900; My Antonia Book II, Chap. 7


  64. McClure's

  65. Title: McClure's
    Date: 1893-1930?
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Ardessa," the Outcry is based to a great extent on McClure's Magazine. Cather was hired at McClure's in 1906 and served as an editor from about 1908-1912. Over the years, the magazine was known for its coverage of science and events, its muckraking, and the excellence of many of its authors.
    Note Source: Uncle Valentine and Other Stories 101 ff.


  66. McTeague

  67. Author: Norris, Frank
    Title: McTeague
    Date: 1899
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1899 Courier article Cather writes: "His horizon is wide, his invention vigorous and bold, his touch heavy and warm and human.... He has looked at truth in the depths, among men begrimed by toil and besotted by ignorance, and still found her fair." In a 1900 Courier article Cather writes: "Last winter that brilliant young Californian ... published a remarkable and gloomy novel, McTeague, a book deep in insight, rich in promise and splendid in execution, but entirely without charm and as disagreeable as only a great piece of work can be." In an April 1900 Courier article Cather calls it "a book that could not be ignored nor dismissed with a word."
    Note Source: Courier 4/8/1899; Courier 1/13/1900; Courier 4/7/1900


  68. Medea

  69. Author: Euripides
    Title: Medea
    Date: 431 BCE
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Professor's House, as Godfrey St. Peter is recalling a time when his children were young, he wonders if Medea's was the only way. Later, he asks if Euripides went off to live alone by the sea "because he had observed women so closely all his life."
    Note Source: The Professor's House Book I, Chap. 10, 14


  70. Memories of a Hostess

  71. Author: Fields, Annie T.
    Title: Memories of a Hostess
    Date: 1922
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "On 17 November 1922 Cather mentioned in a letter to Ferris Greenslet that a few weeks earlier she had written an article on Mrs. Annie Fields, the wife of the Boston publisher James T. Fields. Reading Memories of a Hostess ... from the Diaries of Mrs. James T. Fields, edited by M.A. DeWolfe Howe, had led Cather to recall her own memories of Mrs. Fields."
    Note Source: A Lost Lady Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay" 208


  72. Author: Howe, M.A. DeWolfe, ed.
    Title: Memories of a Hostess
    Date: 1922
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "On 17 November 1922 Cather mentioned in a letter to Ferris Greenslet that a few weeks earlier she had written an article on Mrs. Annie Fields, the wife of the Boston publisher James T. Fields. Reading Memories of a Hostess ... from the Diaries of Mrs. James T. Fields, edited by M.A. DeWolfe Howe, had led Cather to recall her own memories of Mrs. Fields." Later, in a 1944 letter to Mrs. George Whicher, Cather writes that she "will paste their Christmas card with picture of Beacon Street into Annie Fields's Memories of a Hostess. Also, in the essay "148 Charles Street" Cather mentions that she "wrote for The Literary Review an appreciation of it, very sketchy, but done with genuine enthusiasm, which I here incorporate without quotation marks."
    Note Source: A Lost Lady Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay" 208; A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #643; 1657; Not Under Forty


  73. "Memory"

  74. Author: Aldrich, Thomas Bailey
    Title: "Memory"
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: "Mr. Aldrich's 'Memory,' a little masterpiece of ten lines, Emerson's 'April,' Poe's 'To Helen,' and Sidney Lanier's 'Into the Wood[s] My Master Went' will outlast many of the more ambitious efforts of our earlier poets."
    Note Source: Gazette 11/30/1902


  75. Memory Hold-the-Door (U.S. Title: Pilgrim's Way)

  76. Author: Buchan, John
    Title: Memory Hold-the-Door (U.S. Title: Pilgrim's Way)
    Date: 1940
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather enjoys the autobiography of John Buchan as it is serialized in the Atlantic.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1484


  77. Men and Women

  78. Author: Belasco, David
    Title: Men and Women
    Date: 1890
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1895 Journal article, Cather reviewed Belasco's Men and Women. In an 1897 Leader article, Cather compares Belasco's The Wife to his Men and Women: "To me, this change in Miss Trueman's affections has very much the same disastrous effect that the fact of the hero's actual criminality has in Men and Women. Yet of the two plays, the situations in The Wife are not so forced, the characters are more human, and are not so entirely given over to the baleful influence of YMCA emotions."
    Note Source: Journal 1/22/1895; Leader 11/23/1897


  79. Merchant of Venice

  80. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: Merchant of Venice
    Date: 1600
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In an essay on the death of Christina Rossetti: "the simple music of her poetry is almost drowned by the loftier themes and deeper cadences of her brother.... 'So doth the greater glory dim the less'" (Merchant of Venice V.i).
    Note Source: Journal 1/13/1895


  81. The Merchant of Venice

  82. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: The Merchant of Venice
    Date: 1600
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "Last week I saw Sir Henry Irving and Ellen Terry in The Merchant of Venice. It was not only a play, it was the reconstruction of a historic period, the restoration of a bygone civilization, it was the glorious history of Venice animated and made flesh."
    Note Source: Courier 2/17/1900


  83. Mermaid Series

  84. Title: Mermaid Series
    Date: a. 1900
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Fred Otte recalls that he liked the Mermaid Series of best plays that Cather assigned him to read.
    Note Source: Willa Cather Remembered 45


  85. The Merry Wives of Windsor

  86. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: The Merry Wives of Windsor
    Date: 1602
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather reviews Beerbohm Tree's London revival of the play.
    Note Source: Journal 8/24/1902


  87. Mesa, Cañon, and Pueblo

  88. Author: Lummis, Charles F.
    Title: Mesa, Cañon, and Pueblo
    Date: 1925
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "She probably read Lummis's account of photographing a Holy Week crucifixion in 1888 (Mesa, Canon, and Pueblo [1925] 122-28)."
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Scholarly Edition, note 155


  89. Metamorphoses

  90. Author: Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso)
    Title: Metamorphoses
    Date: c. 8 CE
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Coming, Eden Bower!" after a confrontation with Eden about washing his dog in the bathtub she has to use, Don Ledger thinks "about man who was turned into a dog, or was pursued by dogs, because he unnwittingly intruded upon the bath of beauty." The reference is undoubtedly to the man who sees Diana naked, is turned into a stag, and is then killed by his own dogs.
    Note Source: Uncle Valentine and Other Stories 149


  91. The Middle Years

  92. Author: James, Henry
    Title: The Middle Years
    Date: 1917
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1895 Courier article, Cather writes: "Well, as Henry James says, 'Our doubt is our passion and our passion is our task. The rest is the madness of art.'" In a Courier piece on artist Charles Stanley Reinhart, Cather observes that "the 'madness of art' had bitten the boy deeply"; the quote is from James' The Middle Years.
    Note Source: Courier 11/2/1895; Courier 10/23/1897


  93. A Midsummer Night's Dream

  94. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: A Midsummer Night's Dream
    Date: 1600
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: The "new feeling" of Bartley's desire for Hilda "put a girdle round the earth while he was going from New York to Moorlock," an allusion to Puck's "I'll put a girdle round about the earth/In forty minutes" (II.i. 175-6).
    Note Source: Alexander's Bridge Chap. X


  95. A Milk White Flag

  96. Author: Hoyt, Charles
    Title: A Milk White Flag
    Date: 1894
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "When the average American public wants to laugh, it would just a little rather laugh with Charley Hoyt than anyone else, and there is plenty of food for laughter in this gentle satire on the American military, funerals and what not."
    Note Source: Leader 12/1/1896


  97. The Mill on the Floss

  98. Author: Eliot, George
    Title: The Mill on the Floss
    Date: 1860
    Genre: novel
    Note Relating to Cather: In Home Monthly, Cather writes: "The childhood of David and his sister [in Mrs. Humphry Ward's David Grieve] is done with a strong comprehensive touch that recalls George Eliot's matchless treatment of little Tom and Maggie Tulliver." In Courier, Cather writes: "She ... wished to make a complete picture of country life and took a large canvas and brought a company of stolid earthly people about her more feverish characters. But she knew when to lay all of them aside ..."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 5/1897; Courier 9/16/1899


  99. Mine Own People

  100. Author: Kipling, Rudyard
    Title: Mine Own People
    Date: 1891
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "The nucleus of Anglo-Indian society was formed when Clive's troopers marched into the interior, yet no one knew anything about it until the appearance of Soldiers Three and Mine Own People."
    Note Source: Courier 4/4/1899


  101. "Modern Authors Can Be Gentlemen"

  102. Author: Gardiner, Harold C.
    Title: "Modern Authors Can Be Gentlemen"
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather enjoyed Gardiner's essay. (In America 2/7/1942, now LXVI, 493-494
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1527


  103. Modern Painters

  104. Author: Ruskin, John
    Title: Modern Painters
    Date: 1843, 1846, 1856, 1860
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather:  "His death will probably call public attention to him, and we will glance again through the enchanted pages of The Stones of Venice and wonder at their melody"; Cather also quotes Modern Painters and Sesame and Lilies, Lecture I ("Of Kings' Treasuries").
    Note Source: Journal 5/17/1896


  105. Molly Bawn

  106. Author: Hungerford, Margaret
    Title: Molly Bawn
    Date: 1878
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "In these deplorable days when Knighthood is in Flower to the tune of half a million copies, and when novels of the same literary fibre as Molly Bawn and Red as a Rose Is She are tricked out in crinoline and powdered hair and odds-bodikins -- whatever those may be -- and sent forth heralds of the revival of Romance, it is a pleasant experience to encounter such a novel as [Mary] Johnston's ...."
    Note Source: Courier 3/24/1900


  107. Monday Tales

  108. Author: Daudet, Alphonse
    Title: Monday Tales
    Date: 1873 French ed., 1900 American ed.
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather assigned Monday Tales to Fred Otte the summer that she tutored him in Pittsburgh.
    Note Source: Willa Cather Remembered 45


  109. "The Monk of Hildesheim"

  110. Title: "The Monk of Hildesheim"
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Professor's Commencement," when Emerson Graves realizes his youth is gone, he recalls the legend of the monk's story. The story was used by Longfellow in his Golden Legend (II) where the monk was called Felix.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 290


  111. Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres

  112. Author: Adams, Henry
    Title: Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres
    Date: 1904; reissued 1913
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather thanks Ferris Greenslet for a copy of Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #273


  113. The Moon is Down

  114. Author: Steinbeck, John
    Title: The Moon is Down
    Date: 1942
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather found Steinbeck's The Moon is Down forceful but she laments his use of Plato quotation as climax.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1758


  115. Moran of the Lady Letty

  116. Author: Norris, Frank
    Title: Moran of the Lady Letty
    Date: 1898
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Says it derives its power from the same place as McTeague and Blix.
    Note Source: Courier 4/7/1900


  117. The Moth and the Flame

  118. Author: Fitch, Clyde
    Title: The Moth and the Flame
    Date: 1898
    Genre: play
    Note Relating to Cather: "Nathan Hale, like all Clyde Fitch's later works, De Grammont and The Moth and the Flame, has brilliant moments, flashes of dramatic intensity almost, but not quite, great enough to redeem the whole play."
    Note Source: Courier 1/21/1899


  119. "The Mountain in Labor"

  120. Author: Aesop
    Title: "The Mountain in Labor"
    Date: c. 550 BCE
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Willing Muse," the narrator remarks that Kenneth Gray's first book recalls the "fable of the mouse and the mountain."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 114


  121. Mozart

  122. Author: Davenport, Marcia
    Title: Mozart
    Date: 1931
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather enjoyed reading Davenport's biography and recalling Mozart's music.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1178


  123. Mr. Sludge, the Medium

  124. Author: Browning, Robert
    Title: Mr. Sludge, the Medium
    Date: 1864
    Genre: poetry


  125. Mrs. Warren's Profession

  126. Author: Shaw, George Bernard
    Title: Mrs. Warren's Profession
    Date: 1894
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "Much the strongest and most orderly and least farcical of Mr. Shaw's published plays."
    Note Source: Leader 12/2/1898


  127. "My Dear and Only Love"

  128. Author: Graham, James
    Title: "My Dear and Only Love"
    Date: 1643
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Song of the Lark, Dr. Archie quotes from the second stanza of "My Dear and Only Love": "He either fears his fate too much,/Or his deserts are small,/Who dares not put it to the touch/To win...or lose it all."
    Note Source: The Song of the Lark Book II Chap. 11


  129. My Friend from India

  130. Author: Du Souchet, H.A.
    Title: My Friend from India
    Date: 1896
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "The author spends some pains to prepare for a pathetic situation..., and then he apparently forgets about it and never emphasizes it at all.... There is no objection to a comedy lacking the serious element altogether, but why does the playwright introduce it at all unless he intends to make something of it? There are a number of such aimless experiments in the play. The comedy moreover is dragged in by the hair and does not always evolve naturally from the situations." Cather deems the "funniest thing thing in the play" to be Tillie.
    Note Source: Leader 1/26/1897


  131. My Life

  132. Author: Wagner, Richard
    Title: My Life
    Date: 1880
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather recommends Wagner's autobiography.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #219


  133. My Literary Passions

  134. Author: Howells, William Dean
    Title: My Literary Passions
    Date: 1895
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1895 Journal article, Cather writes: "'Passions,' literary or otherwise, were never Mr. Howells' forte and surely no man could be further from even the coast of Bohemia....Doesn't Mr. Howells know that at one time or another everyone raves of Don Quixote, imitates Heine, worships Turgenev and calls Tolstoi a prophet?" In an 1899 Leader article, Cather criticizes the "pedantic, autocratic, exclusive flavor" of My Literary Passions.
    Note Source: Journal 7/14/1895; Leader 12/16/1899


  135. My Musical Memories

  136. Author: Haweis, Hugh Reginald
    Title: My Musical Memories
    Date: 1884
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Thea "read, as intently as if she had not been flushed with anger, the strange 'Musical Memories' of the Reverend H.R. Haweis" in Song of the Lark.
    Note Source: Song of the Lark Part I, Chap. 8


  137. My Partner

  138. Author: Campbell, Bartley
    Title: My Partner
    Date: 1879
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "We got the old plays in the same day done by living people, and often by people who were quite in earnest. My Partner, The Corsican Brothers, Ingomar, Damon and Pythias, The Count of Monte Cristo."
    Note Source: World-Herald 10/27/1929


  139. Mystery of Cloomber

  140. Author: Doyle, Arthur Conan
    Title:  Mystery of Cloomber
    Date: 1889
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "For the most part [mystery stories] are read and thrown aside and forgotten as quickly as a puzzle that is solved, for they contain none of the elements of lasting satisfaction. Of course there are notable exceptions. ... there is Conan Doyle's The Sign of the Four and The Mystery of Cloomber that have established their author's reputation for fiction that is highly sensational and yet by no means devoid of good workmanship and literary skill."
    Note Source: Journal 3/22/1896


  141. Mystery of Edwin Drood

  142. Author: Dickens, Charles
    Title: Mystery of Edwin Drood
    Date: 1870
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "For the most part [mystery stories] are read and thrown aside and forgotten as quickly as a puzzle that is solved, for they contain none of the elements of lasting satisfaction. Of course there are notable exceptions. In the first place there is Dickens' Mystery of Edwin Drood, which is a classic instance that that sort of thing can be done well."
    Note Source: Journal 3/22/1896


    "Nancy Till"

  1. Title: "Nancy Till"
    Genre: song
    Note Relating to Cather: The narrator in the epilogue to Sapphira and the Slave Girl says that when she recalls the melody of this minstrel song she always thinks of Nancy. The song has a traditional history.
    Note Source: Sapphira and the Slave Girl Epilogue


  2. Nathan Hale

  3. Author: Fitch, Clyde
    Title: Nathan Hale
    Date: 1898
    Genre: play
    Note Relating to Cather: "Nathan Hale, like all Clyde Fitch's later works, De Grammont and The Moth and the Flame, has brilliant moments, flashes of dramatic intensity almost, but not quite, great enough to redeem the whole play."
    Note Source: Courier 1/21/1899


  4. "The National Letters"

  5. Author: Mencken, H.L.
    Title: "The National Letters"
    Date: 1920
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Pleased by his article"; it appeared in Prejudices: Second Series.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #577


  6. Nature in American Literature: Studies in the Modern View of Nature

  7. Author: Foerster, Norman
    Title: Nature in American Literature: Studies in the Modern View of Nature
    Date: 1923
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather tells Foerster that she will read Nature in American Literature: Studies in the Modern View of Nature on shipboard.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #677


  8. The New Antigone

  9. Author: Barry, Father William F.
    Title: The New Antigone
    Date: 1887
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather read this "attack on nihilism and free love" by the Irish-born Roman Catholic priest Father William F. Barry.
    Note Source: World and the Parish 2:589


  10. New England Nun

  11. Author: Wilkins, Mary E.
    Title: New England Nun
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: According to Willa Cather Remembered, "I [George Seibel] was fonder of Mary E. Wilkins and her New England Nun, but Willa preferred the the austere and unsentimental Country Doctor.
    Note Source: Willa Cather Remembered 17


  12. New Grub Street

  13. Author: Gissing, George
    Title: New Grub Street
    Date: 1891
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Gissing is able to write a novel about a writer, an unusual feat, in Cather's opinion.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1404


  14. New Mexico: The Land of the Delight Makers

  15. Author: James, George W.
    Title: New Mexico: The Land of the Delight Makers
    Date: 1920
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Source for Death Comes for the Archbishop.
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay" 351


  16. A New Way to Pay Old Debts

  17. Author: Massinger, Philip
    Title: A New Way to Pay Old Debts
    Date: 1633
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather mentions "the demoniac fury of Kean's Overreach" in an open letter to actor Joseph Jefferson; the reference is to Edmund Kean's performance of the part of Sir Giles Overreach.
    Note Source: Courier 12/2/1899


  18. New York Evening Journal

  19. Title: New York Evening Journal
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Affair at Grover Station," a New York Journal reporter travels to Cheyenne, Wyoming, to interview Terrapin Rodgers about Lawrence O'Toole's murder.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 339


  20. New York Times

  21. Title: New York Times
    Date: 2 Dec. 1941
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather tells Sigrid Undset that she is very happy with the news from Russia.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1560


  22. Title: New York Times
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: According to The Song of the Lark, Tillie Kronborg likes to read the "London Letter" that appears in the New York newspaper. According to Alexander's Bridge, the Times prints a story about the strike that delays Alexander Bartley's bridge. According to One of Ours "Historical Essay," the article "American Engineers Build Largest Dam in Europe" may be the source for Barley Owens's dam.
    Note Source: The Song of the Lark Epilogue; Alexander's Bridge Chap. 9; One of Ours "Historical Essay" Scholarly Edition 652; Book V, Chap. 8


  23. New York Tribune

  24. Author: Krehbiel, Edward
    Title: New York Tribune
    Date: 19 December 1909
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Song of the Lark, Thea Kronborg is pleased with the Tribune's critique of her performance of Elsa in Lohengrin. Such an article praising Olive Fremstad's performance of Elsa in 1909 appeared in the Tribunethe day after Fremstad's performance (19 December 1909).
    Note Source:  The Song of the Lark, Book VI, Chap. 6


  25. Title: New York Tribune
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In Sapphira and the Slave Girl, Mrs. Bywaters, who runs the post office, subscribes to the New York Tribune, an "indiscreet thing to do...."
    Note Source: Sapphira and the Slave Girl Book IV, Chap. 2


  26. "Nicolas Gogol"

  27. Author: Merimee, Prosper
    Title: "Nicolas Gogol"
    Date: 1851
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather says that she enjoyed Merimee's essay on Gogol.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #995


  28. "Night"

  29. Author: Jeffers, Robinson
    Title: "Night"
    Date: 1924
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather admires "Night" from Tamar and Other Poems, expanded and reissued as Roan Stallion, Tamar, and Other Poems in 1925.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1014


  30. No. 5 John Street

  31. Author: Whiteing, Richard
    Title: No. 5 John Street
    Date: 1899
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "This book, I fancy, is one of the few permanent contributions to literature that the year has produced.
    Note Source: Leader 6/17/1899


  32. Noctes Atticae

  33. Author: Gellius, Aulus
    Title: Noctes Atticae
    Date: c. 150-180
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Paul, Count De Koch, in "The Count of Crow's Nest," uses the phrase tedium vitae. March (750) identifies the phrase as from Noctes Atticae (book 6, chap. 18, section 11).
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 457


  34. North of Boston

  35. Author: Frost, Robert
    Title: North of Boston
    Date: 1914
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Praises North of Boston and slights Witter Bynner.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #317


  36. North to the Orient

  37. Author: Lindbergh, Anne Morrow
    Title: North to the Orient
    Date: 1935
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In a letter Cather says that she enjoyed Lindbergh's North to the Orient. In another letter, writing to Carrie Sherwood, Cather says that she liked Lindbergh's book. In a letter Cather praises North to the Orient.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1278; A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1285; A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1295


  38. Notes of a Son and Brother

  39. Author: James, Henry
    Title: Notes of a Son and Brother
    Date: 1914
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: James's new book is too mannered and has too little substance.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #282


  40. Notre Coeur

  41. Author: Maupassant, Guy de
    Title: Notre Coeur
    Date: 1890
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "[Alphonse Daudet] left no novel which, in days to come, will carry the conviction and power of Notre Coeur or Madame Bovary or Cousin Pons."
    Note Source: Courier 1/22/1898


  42. Numa Roumestan

  43. Author: Daudet, Alphonse
    Title: Numa Roumestan
    Date: 1881
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "[Daudet] knew his own weakness, had made the confession of himself and his countrymen in Numa Roumestan."
    Note Source: Courier 1/22/1898


    The Odd Number

  1. Author: Maupassant, Guy de
    Title: The Odd Number
    Date: 1889
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: This edition of The Odd Number translated by Jonathan Sturgis and with a forward written by Henry James is probably the one Cather set Fred Otte to read when she was tutoring him in Pittsburgh.
    Note Source: Willa Cather Remembered 45


  2. Odes

  3. Author: Horace
    Title: Odes
    Date: 23-13 BCE
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Professor's Commencement," Emerson Graves quotes a line from Horace to defend his long teaching career: "A monument more lasting than brass. "Claude Wheeler, in One of Ours, becomes disgusted with Annabelle Chapin's reciting of Horace's odes all winter. In a World and the Parish article, it is written: "Willa Cather's commitment to the writers of classical antiquity had its inception in her childhood and endured throughout her life. She was only ten when she began reading Latin, and one of her earliest published poems — it appeared in the Hesperian on November 24, 1892, during her freshman year at university — was a translation of an ode by Horace." In an 1895 Courier article, Cather writes: "It is like Anacreon who when the women told him he was growing old and that his locks were white beneath his crown of roses, said, 'The nearer I draw unto the gates of the grave, the more will I dance, and my lyre shall ever ring of love until I tune it to the mournful numbers of the choir below' [Ode IV]."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 285; One of Ours Book I, Chap. 5; World and the Parish 1:71; Courier 11/16/1895


  4. An Ode to Harvard and Other Poems

  5. Author: Bynner, Witter
    Title: An Ode to Harvard and Other Poems
    Date: 1907
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather tells Bynner that she particularly liked his "An Ode to Harvard" and "The Fruits of the Earth."
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #133


  6. Odyssey

  7. Author: Homer
    Title: Odyssey
    Date: c. 700 BCE
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Flavia and Her Artists," Miss Broadwood accosts Imogen with the words "and you've brought Ulysses home again and the slaughter has begun." In One of Ours, to Claude, "the story of 'Paradise Lost' was as mythical as the 'Odyssey,'" and "Like the hero of the Odyssey upon his homeward journey, Claude had often to tell what his country was, and who were the parents that begot him." In Death Comes for the Archbishop Prologue, Father Ferrand is said to be the "Odysseus of the Church."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 170; One of Ours Book II, Chap. 2, Book III, Chap. 10; Death Comes for the Archbishop Prologue


  8. Oeuvres

  9. Author: Ronsard, Pierre de
    Title: Oeuvres
    Date: 1623
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Willing Muse," Kenneth Gray has written a work called The Wood of Ronsard. The French poet Ronsard had loved trees, especially the Forest of Gastine which he mentions in his poetry many times.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 114


  10. "Oh, wert thou in the cauld blast"

  11. Author: Burns, Robert
    Title: "Oh, wert thou in the cauld blast"
    Date: 1796
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Dr. Archie "loved the poetry of Robert Burns," and got Thea "some of the songs, set to the old airs for which they were written.... Sometimes when she sang, 'Oh, wert thou in the cauld blast,' the doctor and even Mr. Kronborg joined in."
    Note Source: Song of the Lark Part I, Chap. 12


  12. "The Old Clock on the Stairs"

  13. Author: Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth
    Title: "The Old Clock on the Stairs"
    Date: 1845
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Bohemian Girl," Nils Ericson says that he did not come home "to be a skeleton at the feast." The expression dates long before Longfellow, but he uses it in one line of his poetry: "But, like the skeleton at the feast."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 17


  14. "Old Jesse was a Gem'man"

  15. Title: "Old Jesse was a Gem'man"
    Genre: song
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Old Mrs. Harris," Hillary Templeton sings one of the many versions of this folksong. See Dorothy Scarborough, On the Trail of Negro Folk-Songs 71-72 for one collected version.
    Note Source: Obscure Destinies 149


  16. "The Old Oaken Bucket"

  17. Author: Woodworth, Samuel
    Title: "The Old Oaken Bucket"
    Date: 1817
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In My Antonia, the tramp who jumps into the threshing machine had "some poetry" in his pocket: "It was 'The Old Oaken Bucket,' cut out of a newspaper and nearly worn out." The poem was set to music by George Kiallmark in 1826.
    Note Source: My Antonia Book II, Chap. 6


  18. The Old Town

  19. Author: Riis, Jacob
    Title: The Old Town
    Date: 1909
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather says that she chose Benda to illustrate My Antonia after seeing his drawings for The Old Town.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #400


  20. Oliver Cromwell: A History

  21. Author: Church, Samuel Haraden
    Title: Oliver Cromwell: A History
    Date: 1894
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In 1897, she had "not read and consequently [could] say nothing about" the book, but she reviewed it for the Leader in 1899.
    Note Source: Courier 12/18/1897, Leader 6/10/1899


  22. Omaha World Herald

  23. Title: Omaha World Herald
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In One of Ours II, the Wheelers read the war news in the Omaha paper, and in"The Best Years," James Ferguesson shares its news with his family.
    Note Source:  One of Ours Book II, Chap. 1; The Old Beauty and Others


  24. The One I Knew Best of All

  25. Author: Burnett, Frances Hodgson
    Title: The One I Knew Best of All
    Date: 1893
    Genre: autobiography


  26. One of Our Conquerors

  27. Author: Meredith, George
    Title: One of Our Conquerors
    Date: 1891
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather borrowed the title for her 6/2/1900 article in the Library on Lizzie Hudson Collier.
    Note Source: World and the Parish 2:764


  28. "One View of the Question"

  29. Author: Kipling, Rudyard
    Title: "One View of the Question"
    Date: 1893
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather quotes this in her letter on England's "canal folk"; from Kipling's Many Inventions.
    Note Source: Journal 8/10/1902


  30. One Way of Love

  31. Author: Browning, Robert
    Title: One Way of Love
    Date: 1855
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: mentioned in column
    Note Source: NSJ


  32. "One Word More"

  33. Author: Browning, Robert
    Title: "One Word More"
    Date: 1855
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather quotes Browning in a review of Hamlet: "The 'unlit lamp and the ungirt loin' is not the end. 'Other heights in other lives, God willing.'" The quotations are from "The Statue and the Bust," stanza 83, and "One Word More," the poetic epilogue to Men and Women, stanza 12.
    Note Source: Courier 11/23/1895


  34. "On the City Wall"

  35. Author: Kipling, Rudyard
    Title: "On the City Wall"
    Date: 1888
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "He has been trying to live a respectable Puritan life in Vermont and be a full-fledged family man.... Go back to the east, Mr. Kipling; we and our world are not for you. Our life is not free enough for you and you are not strong enough for it.... Go back to the land where you wrote 'The Gate of a Hundred Sorrows' and 'Without Benefit of Clergy' and 'On the City Wall'.... Ah, Mr. Kipling, it would be sad and tragical if it were not so laughable that you who wrote 'The Story of the Gadsbys' should be the victim of matrimony. It has shorn the wings of your freedom, and your freedom was your art.... Alas! There were so many men who could have married Mrs. Kipling, and there was only you who could write Soldiers Three."
    Note Source: Journal 12/23/1894


  36. "The Open Boat"

  37. Author: Crane, Stephen
    Title: "The Open Boat"
    Date: 1897
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather calls "The Open Boat" a "marvelous sea story ... unsurpassed in its vividness and constructive perfection."
    Note Source: Library 6/23/1900


  38. Orion and Other Poems

  39. Author: Roberts, Charles G.D.
    Title: Orion and Other Poems
    Date: 1880
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather calls the poems in this collection "pedantic and imitative."
    Note Source: Gazette 11/30/1902


  40. Othello

  41. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: Othello
    Date: 1604
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Professor's House, Godfrey St. Peter considers that Tom Outland, "this tramp boy," has "amass[ed] a fortune for someone whose name he had never heard, for 'an extravagant and wheeling stranger'" (Othello I.1.135). In "Neighbor Rosicky," Anton Rosicky understands that (unlike Iago) people like Polly do not "wear their heart on their sleeve" I:1, ll. 64 . In a letter, Cather recalls seeing a performance with Paul Robeson and Uta Hagen, and writes that Hagen "conceived and acted the part beautifully."
    Note Source: The Professor's HouseBook III, Chap. 1; Obscure Destinies 59; A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1658


  42. The Other House

  43. Author: James, Henry
    Title: The Other House
    Date: 1896
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "O, the interest, the terror, the tragedy, the passion of it! It is the sort of book that keeps one up until three o'clock in the morning."
    Note Source: Journal 12/20/1896


  44. Otto of the Silver Hand

  45. Author: Pyle, Howard
    Title: Otto of the Silver Hand
    Date: 1888
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Quoted in an essay on Oscar Wilde after his second sodomy trial. Howard Pyle "is as careful and painstaking and artistic with his children's books as the very best novelists are with their novels. The Wonder Clock [1888] or Salt and Pepper for Young Folks [1886] cannot fail to make children happy. But best of them all is Pyle's Otto of the Silver Hand. It is a story of German chivalry in the days of the robber barons, and when a boy is through with it he has a very fair idea what that phrase 'the Middle Ages' meant."
    Note Source: Courier 9/28/1895; Home Monthly 1/1897


  46. Our Town

  47. Author: Wilder, Thornton
    Title: Our Town
    Date: 1938
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather praises Wilder's Our Town.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1407


  48. Out of Mulberry Street

  49. Author: Riis, Jacob
    Title: Out of Mulberry Street
    Date: 1898
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "No journalist has worked at this will with a steadier hand, or more observant and sympathetic eye."
    Note Source: Leader 12/10/1899


  50. Outre-Mer: Impressions of America

  51. Author: Bourget, M. Paul
    Title: Outre-Mer: Impressions of America
    Date: 1894
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1895 Journalarticle, Cather writes: "A book which deals more fairly and generously with this country than any book yet written in a foreign tongue." In an 1899 Leader article, Cather says Bourget failed to give a good analysis and description of a country and its people.
    Note Source: Journal 5/5/1895; Leader 5/27/1899


  52. Outsiders: An Outline

  53. Author: Chambers, Robert
    Title: Outsiders: An Outline
    Date: 1899
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Mr. Chambers' episodes are conventional, his characters wooden, his plots machinemade ..."
    Note Source: Leader 7/8/1899


  54. Over the Top

  55. Author: Empey, Arthur Guy
    Title: Over the Top
    Date: 1917
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: A likely source for One of Ours.
    Note Source: One of Ours "Historical Essay" Scholarly Edition 652


  56. The Oxford Book of English Verse

  57. Author: Quiller-Couch, Arthur (editor)
    Title: The Oxford Book of English Verse
    Date: 1900
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Fred Otte says that The Oxford Book of English Verse assigned by Cather for him to read helped him in reading April Twilights.
    Note Source: Willa Cather Remembered 45


    The Pace of Youth

  1. Author: Crane, Stephen
    Title: The Pace of Youth
    Date: 1898
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Thomas Beer remarks that Cather "was not immune to influences--who is?--and the excessively curious will find a phrase of "The Beldonald Holbein" and a simile from "The Pace of Youth" transmuted in this [Cather's] early work."
    Note Source: Willa Cather Remembered 80


  2. A Pair of Blue Eyes

  3. Author: Hardy, Thomas
    Title: A Pair of Blue Eyes
    Date: 1873
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "I admire Thomas Hardy; I admire the lofty conception of Tess of the d'Urbervilles, the finished execution of A Pair of Blue Eyes, the beautiful simplicity of Far from the Madding Crowd. But for Hearts Insurgent I have no forgiveness."
    Note Source: Courier 10/5/1895


  4. Pan and the Young Shepherd

  5. Author: Hewlett, Maurice
    Title: Pan and the Young Shepherd
    Date: 1898
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather calls Pan and the Young Shepherd "a prose poem of high merit."
    Note Source: Leader 5/27/1899


  6. Pan Michael

  7. Author: Sienkiewicz, Henryk
    Title: Pan Michael
    Date: 1893
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Calls Quo Vadis? a "powerful, remarkable book," but less "meritorious" than his other work: With Fire and Sword, The Deluge, Pan Michael, Without Dogma, and "several others," translated from Polish into English by Jeremiah Curtin.
    Note Source: Home Monthly 2/1898


  8. Paolo and Francesca

  9. Author: Phillips, Stephen
    Title: Paolo and Francesca
    Date: 1900
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "The piece might be played anywhere, in a garden, on the rude stage of the old Globe Theatre, so untheatric it is. Indeed the play is built on the lines of the Greek tragedies rather than of modern plays, and it is a drama of fate, in which the characters are driven to their doom by a force seemingly outside of themselves ..."
    Note Source: Courier 3/3/1900


  10. Paracelsus

  11. Author: Browning, Robert
    Title: Paracelsus
    Date: 1836
    Genre: verse drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather mentions it in a column
    Note Source: NSJ


  12. Paradise Lost

  13. Author: Milton, John
    Title: Paradise Lost
    Date: 1667
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In One of Ours, Mrs. Wheeler reads aloud to Claude, who comments that "Milton couldn't have gotten along without the wicked, could he?... It just struck me that this part is so much more interesting than the books about perfect innocence in Eden." Later in the novel, he reflects that "the story of 'Paradise Lost' was as mythical as the 'Odyssey'; yet when his mother read it aloud to him, it was not only beautiful but true. A woman who didn't have holy thoughts about mysterious things far away would be prosaic and commonplace, like a man." In "Before Breakfast," Henry Grenfell questions his life one morning before breakfast: "and all this meant nothing to him except negatively--"to avoid worse rape."
    Note Source: One of Ours Book I, Chap. 15; Book II, Chap. 2; The Old Beauty and Others 149


  14. Partial Portraits

  15. Author: James, Henry
    Title: Partial Portraits
    Date: 1888
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Seibel and Cather agreed that Henry James "was a great critic, and [they] delved into all those Gallic writers of Partial Portraits and French Poets and Novelists--Balzac, Sand, Merimee, Maupassant--with occasional excursions into Dumas fils, Edouard Rod, intoxicating whiffs of Baudelaire and Richepin, deep draughts of young Rostand's ruby wine. Henry James was the guide whose hand held ours, and his critical standard was our polestar on those voyages."
    Note Source: Willa Cather Remembered 17


  16. Pascarel: Only a Story

  17. Author: Ouida (Marie Louise de la Ramee)
    Title: Pascarel: Only a Story
    Date: 1873
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Sometimes I wonder why God ever trusts talent in the hands of women, they usually make such an infernal mess of it. I think He must do it as a sort of ghastly joke. Really, it would be hard to find a better plot than is in that same Under Two Flags, and the book contains the rudiments of a great style, and it also contains some of the most driveling nonsense and mawkish sentimentality and contemptible feminine weakness to be found anywhere." Also mentioned: A Village Commune, Pascarel, Ariadne, Wanda, and Friendship; each has merits, but "I hate to read them."
    Note Source: Courier 11/23/1895


  18. "The Passing of Arthur"

  19. Author: Tennyson, Alfred, Lord
    Title: "The Passing of Arthur"
    Date: 1869
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Eric Hermannson's Soul," Margaret Elliot is said to belong to the new order that replaces the old: "'The old order changeth, yielding place to new...." (from Idylls of the King). In an 1894 Journal article,Cather quotes "The Passing of Arthur" (from Idylls of the King), II.408-410, in a defense of modern drama: "Old order changeth, yielding place to new/ And God fulfils Himself in many ways,/ Lest one good custom should corrupt the world." Cather reviewed "The Passing of Arthur" for the Nebraska State Journal in 1895.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 363; Journal 12/16/1894; Journal 1/20/1895


  20. Pauline: A Fragment of a Confession

  21. Author: Browning, Robert
    Title: Pauline: A Fragment of a Confession
    Date: 1833
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In a Nebraska State Journal piece, "The Spirit Which Has Buoyed Me Up," "Mahoon the talker" recites Shelley's "Masque of Anarchy" and then Robert Browning's "Pauline."
    Note Source: Journal 12/3/1893


  22. Paul Kauvar

  23. Author: MacKaye, Steele
    Title: Paul Kauvar
    Date: 1887
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather:  "It promised a new epoch in American drama, an epoch which the playwrights of the present are not filling with golden triumphs."
    Note Source: Journal 2/26/1895


  24. Pecheur d'Islande

  25. Author: Loti, Pierre
    Title: Pecheur d'Islande
    Date: 1886
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Acording to George Seibel, Lote's Pecheur d'Islande was a "pathetic romance" he and Cather read.
    Note Source: Willa Cather Remembered 13


  26. Peer Gynt

  27. Author: Ibsen, Henrik
    Title: Peer Gynt
    Date: 1867
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: On Rossetti's "Goblin Market": "In its weird mysticism it reminds one of the elfland scenes in Peer Gynt."
    Note Source: Journal 1/13/1895


  28. Pensees

  29. Author: Pascal, Blaise
    Title: Pensees
    Date: 1670
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Near the end of his life, Father Latour loves to work in his garden. "He often quoted to his students that passage from their fellow Auvergnat, Pascal: that Man was lost and saved in a garden." Cather is paraphrasing from a fragment of #1919, "The Mystery of Jesus": "Jesus is in a garden, not of delight, like the first Adam, who there fell and took with him all mankind, but of agony, where he has saved himself and all mankind." During his last days, the Archbishop enjoys hearing Bernard read "his favorite Pascal."
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Book IX; Death Comes for the Archbishop Scholarly Edition, note 279; Book IX, Chap.4


  30. Pentecost of Calamity

  31. Author: Wister, Owen
    Title: Pentecost of Calamity
    Date: 1915
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather found Wister's Pentecost of Calamity disappointing.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #310


  32. Pere Goriot

  33. Author: Balzac, Honore de
    Title: Pere Goriot
    Date: 1835
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In a Nebraska State Journal piece on artists' private lives, Cather writes, "It is better that we do not know what the last chapter of the Pere Goriot cost Balzac, what the third chapter [act?] of Phaedra cost Rachel." In Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912, the roomers speculate about Count de Koch as the roomers do about Balzac's Goriot in "The Count of Crow's Nest."
    Note Source: Journal 6/16/1895; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 451


  34. The Perfect Wagnerite

  35. Author: Shaw, George Bernard
    Title: The Perfect Wagnerite
    Date: 1898
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Mr. Shaw does Wagner the honor to take him quite seriously and praiseworthily refrains from making merry at his expense."
    Note Source: Leader 5/271899


  36. Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc

  37. Author: Twain, Mark (Samuel Clemens)
    Title: Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc
    Date: 1896
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1895 Courier article Cather writes: "There is that thoroughly stupid Recollections of Joan of Arc by no less an historical and literary authority than Mark Twain. It's only Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn in very transparent sixteenth-century dress and talking the barbarous English in which school boys write their first historical novels." In an 1897 Home Monthly article Cather writes: "I got a letter last week from a little boy just half-past seven who had just read Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer. He said: 'If there are any more books like them in the world, send them to me quick.' I had to humbly confess to him that if there were any others I had not the good fortune to know of them.... Certainly Mark Twain is much better when he writes of his Missouri boys than when he makes sickly romances about Joan of Arc. And certainly he never did a better piece of work than The Prince and the Pauper."
    Note Source: Courier 10/5/1895; Home Monthly 5/1897


  38. Peter Ibbetson

  39. Author: Du Maurier, George
    Title: Peter Ibbetson
    Date: 1891
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In a piece on the death of George du Maurier, Cather discusses Trilby and mentions Peter Ibbetson.
    Note Source: Home Monthly 11/1896


  40. Peter Parley's Universal History on the Basis of Geography

  41. Author: Parley, Peter (pseud. Of Samuel Griswold Goodrich)
    Title: Peter Parley's Universal History on the Basis of Geography
    Date: 1837
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In the Epilogue to Sapphira and the Slave Girl, Cather says that her favorite history book as a child was Peter Parley's.
    Note Source: Sapphira and the Slave Girl epilogue


  42. "The Philosopher in the Apple Orchard"

  43. Author: Hope, Anthony (Anthony Hope Hawkins)
    Title: "The Philosopher in the Apple Orchard"
    Date: 1896
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Everyone in reading Mr. Hawkins' books feels that he has a peculiarly sure touch with his women. He writes of them with understanding, or perhaps it is only with that respectful and sympathetic misunderstanding which is quite as effective." Anthony Hope is the pseudonym of Sir Anthony Hope Hawkins; the story appears in his Comedies of Courtship.
    Note Source: Courier 11/13/1897


  44. Philosophe sous les Toits

  45. Author: Souvestre, Emile
    Title: Philosophe sous les Toits
    Date: 1851
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather refers to Souvestre's Philosophe sous les Toits as "pleasant pastry."
    Note Source: Willa Cather Remembered 13


  46. Phroso

  47. Author: Hope, Anthony (Anthony Hope Hawkins)
    Title: Phroso
    Date: 1897
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: On Anthony Hope's new novel, Phroso: "O, he is such a blessed relief from the commonplace, this clever Mr. Hawkins!"; Anthony Hope was the pseudonym of Sir Anthony Hope Hawkins.
    Note Source: Home Monthly 3/1897


  48. The Picture of Dorian Gray

  49. Author: Wilde, Oscar
    Title: The Picture of Dorian Gray
    Date: 1891
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In her preface to the 1937 Autograph Edition of Song of the Lark, Cather writes that "the life of nearly every artist who succeeds in the true sense (succeeds in delivering himself completely to his art) is more or less like Wilde's story," which she inaccurately calls "The Portrait of Dorian Grey." In an 1895 Journal article Cather writes: "We will have no more such plays as Lady Windermere's Fan, no more such stories as The Picture of Dorian Gray. We can do without them."
    Note Source: Song of the Lark Preface; Journal 5/19/1895


  50. Pierre Curie

  51. Author: Curie, Marie
    Title: Pierre Curie
    Date: 1923
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Recommends Pierre Curie to Dorothy Canfield Fisher.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #719


  52. The Pilgrim's Progress from This World, to That Which Is to Come

  53. Author: Bunyan, John
    Title: The Pilgrim's Progress from This World, to That Which Is to Come
    Date: 1678, 1684
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In Song of the Lark, Cather writes, "Sometimes she [Thea] got so nervous at the piano that she left it, and snatching up her hat and cape went out and walked, hurrying through the streets like Christian fleeing from the City of Destruction." In Cather's One of Ours, there is an engraving with scenes from Pilgrim's Progress over the sofa in the Wheeler house. In a letter, Lewis writes that Cather said she read The Pilgrim's Progress eight times during one of her first winters in Nebraska. In an 1897 Home Monthly article, Cather writes, "If I were asked what two books were the most essential to a child's library and most important in his education, I should name two very old-fashioned ones that their fathers and mothers read and loved before them: Pilgrim's Progress and The Swiss Family Robinson.... Like Jo and Meg in Little Women, [some children] even dramatized and played [Pilgrim's Progress]." In "Before Breakfast," Henry Grenfell is compared to Christian because he "left his burden at the bottom of the hill." In "Old Mrs. Harris,"as she lies dying, grandmother Harris recalls the line "Then said Mercy, how sweet is rest to them that labour." In Sapphira and the Slave Girl, Henry Colbert identifies Nancy with Mercy. In "Scandal," Kitty Ayrshire wants "to believe that everything for sale in Vanity Fair was worth the advertised price."
    Note Source: Song of the Lark Part II, Chap. 3; One of Ours Book I, Chap.7; Lewis 14; Home Monthly 1/1897; The Old Beauty and Others 161; Obscure Destinies 152; Sapphira and the Slave Girl; Youth and the Bright Medusa "Scandal" 153


  54. Pilgrims of '48: One Man's Part in the Austrian Revolution of 1848 and a Family Migration to America

  55. Author: Goldmark, Josephine
    Title: Pilgrims of '48: One Man's Part in the Austrian Revolution of 1848 and a Family Migration to America
    Date: 1930
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Likes the characterizations of both the Brandeis family and the Goldmarks. Reminds her of her own fondness for the immigrants she knew in Nebraska.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1043


  56. "Pioneers! O Pioneers!"

  57. Author: Whitman, Walt
    Title: "Pioneers! O Pioneers!"
    Date: 1865
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather takes her title for O Pioneers! from Whitman's celebratory poem of westward expansion.
    Note Source: O Pioneers! title


  58. Pippa Passes

  59. Author: Browning, Robert
    Title: Pippa Passes
    Date: 1841
    Genre: verse drama
    Note Relating to Cather: plot described in column
    Note Source: NSJ


  60. Pique

  61. Author: Daly, Augustin
    Title: Pique
    Date: 1871
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "Among the plays of his authorship there were none that will live far into the next century, or that will add much to the commanding authority of his name, but there are several, such as Under the Gaslight and Pique, that were useful pieces in their time and kept inferior plays off the boards."
    Note Source: Courier 7/1/1899


  62. "The Pit and the Pendulum"

  63. Author: Poe, Edgar Allan
    Title: "The Pit and the Pendulum"
    Date: 1843
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Professor's House, Godfrey St. Peter compares Robert Crane to the victim in Poe's story: "It's like 'The Pit and the Pendulum.' I feel as if the poor fellow [Crane] were strapped down on a revolving disk that comes around under the knife just so often."
    Note Source: The Professor's House Part I, Chap. 12


  64. Plain Tales from the Hills

  65. Author: Kipling, Rudyard
    Title: Plain Tales from the Hills
    Date: 1888
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Had Captains Courageous and The Day's Work been his first productions they would have made, doubtless, a noise in the world, but they would not have done for their author what Plain Tales from the Hills and Soldiers Three did.
    Note Source: Courier 4/4/1899


  66. The Playboy of the Western World

  67. Author: Synge, John Millington
    Title: The Playboy of the Western World
    Date: 1909
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: William Archer introduced Cather to new theatrical drama. She saw Playboy with Archer when the Abbey players debuted in London (1909).
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1749


  68. Poemes Saturniens

  69. Author: Verlaine, Paul
    Title: Poemes Saturniens
    Date: 1867
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: On the death of Verlaine: "Oysters do not grow pearls under normal conditions nor do men write great poems. The finest things in this world do not always grow like cabbages. Things like Verlaine's Poemes Saturniens need conditions of their own."
    Note Source: Journal 2/2/1896


  70. Poems (Realf)

  71. Author: Realf, Richard
    Title: Poems (Realf)
    Date: 1898
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: "It is impossible to judge the verses of Richard Realf merely as poetry. They were born in the stormy atmosphere of over-wrought emotions and to the emotions rather than to critical discrimination do they appeal. Simple human anguish is outside the province of criticism."
    Note Source: Courier 2/25/1899


  72. Poems (Wilde)

  73. Author: Wilde, Oscar
    Title: Poems (Wilde)
    Date: 1881
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: According to an 1895 Courier aricle, Cather quotes "Helas!" and "Glykypikros Eros" in an essay on Wilde after his second sodomy trial, in which she is "not speaking of his crimes against society, which all men know. I am speaking of his crimes against literature, which came much earlier, which only a few saw and lamented." In an article in the Journal, Cather quotes stanza 33 of "The Garden of Eros" in a piece on John Ruskin. According to an 1895 Courier article, Cather quotes "The Garden of Eros" in a column on Swinburne.
    Note Source: Courier 9/28/1895; Journal 5/17/1896; Courier 11/30/1895


  74. Poems of Paul Verlaine

  75. Author: Verlaine, Paul
    Title: Poems of Paul Verlaine
    Date: 1895
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Quotes "L'Amour par terre," "Colloque Sentimental," and "Streets," from Poems of Paul Verlaine, trans. Gertrude Hall (1895).
    Note Source: Journal 2/2/1896


  76. Poesies Nouvelles

  77. Author: Musset, Alfred de
    Title: Poesies Nouvelles
    Date: 1852
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: de Musset's Poesies Nouvelles was the second book George Seibel and Cather translated from the French: "... 'Rolla,' the various 'Nuits' of various months, the 'Letter to Malibran,' and other hits of melodious melancholia."
    Note Source: Willa Cather Remembered 13


  78. "The Poet"

  79. Author: Emerson, Ralph Waldo
    Title: "The Poet"
    Date: 1844
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Treasure of Far Island," the phrase "true land-lords and sea-lords" comes from the last paragraph of "The Poet." In Cather's July 1897 Home Monthly column, she used a passage from Emerson's "The Poet" for an epigraph. In a 1897 Journal review of Minne Maddern Fiske's Tess, Cather writes: "It was as though she could not speak it, 'for an old shame before a holy ideal,' as Emerson somewhere says"; the reference is to "The Poet." In a 1901 Journal column, Cather writes: "Certainly, if there is anything in Emerson's definition of a landlord as the man who can carry the characteristic beauty of a place in his mind, rather than a man who has the right to rub his hands in the soil [naturalist Ernest Seton-Thompson] may claim the whole Black Hills region as his park and demesne." In "The Poet," Emerson writes that the poet -- the "true land-lord" -- "shalt have the whole land for thy park and manor."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 265; Home Monthly 7/1897; Journal 5/30/1897; Journal 2/10/1901


  80. Poets of the Younger Generation

  81. Author: Archer, William
    Title: Poets of the Younger Generation
    Date: 1902
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In the 11/30/1902 Gazette, Cather borrowed the title for her response to Josephine Doge Daskam. In a letter, Cather wrote that she enjoyed Archer's Poets of the Younger Generation.
    Note Source: World and the Parish 2:879; A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1305


  82. "The Polish Boy"

  83. Author: Stephens, Ann Sophia Winterbotham
    Title: "The Polish Boy"
    Date: 1834
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Treasure of Far Island," Douglass Burnham, who learned the poem as a boy, can still recite it as an adult. In Song of the Lark, Aunt Tillie recites "The Polish Boy" at the Christmas Eve concert.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 268; Song of the Lark Part I, Chap. 8


  84. The Politician, or, the Woman's Plank

  85. Author: Lloyd, David. D and Sidney Rosenfeld
    Title: The Politician, or, the Woman's Plank
    Date: 1894
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather reviews The Politician, or, the Woman's Plank for the Courier.
    Note Source: Courier 9/5/1895


  86. Pollyanna

  87. Author: Porter, Eleanor Hodgman
    Title: Pollyanna
    Date: 1913
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In One of Ours, Victor Morse calls soldiers' girlfriends back home "Pollyannas."
    Note Source: One of Ours IV


  88. The Poor Relation

  89. Author: Kidder, Edward E.
    Title: The Poor Relation
    Date: 1890
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "The youthful lovers of David Copperfield and Arthur Pendennis, Esq. are only funny because they were so desperately serious....It is the laughter and reckless gaiety that makes the first act of Camille so horribly pathetic, the seriousness of the poor inventor that makes [Edward E. Kidder's comedy] The Poor Relation so funny."
    Note Source: Journal 12/9/1894


  90. "Poor Richard's Almanack"

  91. Author: Franklin, Benjamin
    Title: "Poor Richard's Almanack"
    Date: 1733-1758
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In Sapphira and the Slave Girl, Sapphira quotes an almanac aphorism: "Hospitality, like fish, stinks after three days." She goes on to point out, however, that southern hospitality stretches out as long as the visitor pleases. John March (282) suggests that similar sayings can be found in the June 1733 and the June 1736 editions of the almanac. Wick Cutter, in My Antonia, is fond of quoting "Poor Richard's Almanack" to Jim Burden.
    Note Source: Sapphira and the Slave Girl Book VI, Chap. 2; My AntoniaBook II, Chap. 11


  92. "The Pope's Mule"

  93. Author: Daudet, Alphonse
    Title: "The Pope's Mule"
    Date: 1893
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather visits the Avignon, France, bridge described in the story.
    Note Source: Journal 9/28/1902


  94. A Popular History of France from the Earliest Times

  95. Author: Guizot, Francois
    Title: A Popular History of France from the Earliest Times
    Date: 1869
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather is rereading Guizot's history of France.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1463


  96. Portage, Wisconsin and Other Ways and/or Borgia

  97. Author: Gale, Zona
    Title: Portage, Wisconsin and Other Ways and/or Borgia
    Date: 1928-1929
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather enjoyed Zona Gale's book. Knopf had published books by Gale both in 1928 and 1929.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #986


  98. The Practical Cogitator; or, The Thinker's Anthology

  99. Author: Curtis, Charles P. and Ferris Greenslet, eds.
    Title: The Practical Cogitator; or, The Thinker's Anthology
    Date: 1945
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In a letter, Cather writes that she likes the section "How to Compose Your Life." In another letter, Cather writes that she has enjoyed first prose anthology, but thought it could be shorter.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1728; A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1730


  100. Author: Greenslet, Ferris
    Title: The Practical Cogitator; or, The Thinker's Anthology
    Date: 1945
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather likes the section "How to Compose Your Life."
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1728


  101. "The Pre-Destined"

  102. Author: Maeterlinck, Maurice
    Title: "The Pre-Destined"
    Date: 1899
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather recalls a passage "on those doomed to early death" upon hearing of Stephen Crane's illness.
    Note Source: Library 6/23/1900


  103. The Pride of Jennico

  104. Author: Furniss, Grace L. and Abby S. Richardson
    Title: The Pride of Jennico
    Date: 1900
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "There is no reason why the common people of Chicago, the people who read Marie Corelli and go to see The Pride of Jennico, should know any more about pictures than the people of any other big city, but they do."
    Note Source: Courier 8/10/1901


  105. Prince and the Pauper

  106. Author: Twain, Mark (Samuel Clemens)
    Title: Prince and the Pauper
    Date: 1882
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "I got a letter last week from a little boy just half-past seven who had just read Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer. He said: 'If there are any more books like them in the world, send them to me quick.' I had to humbly confess to him that if there were any others I had not the good fortune to know of them.... Certainly Mark Twain is much better when he writes of his Missouri boys than when he makes sickly romances about Joan of Arc. And certainly he never did a better piece of work than The Prince and the Pauper."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 5/1897


  107. Prince Hohenstiel-Schwangau

  108. Author: Browning, Robert
    Title: Prince Hohenstiel-Schwangau
    Date: 1871
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: "[Explorer Fridtjof] Nansen said, in a conversation at the hotel before the lecture, that he had read a great deal of Browning during that voyage. I suppose it was in the desperation of a Polar night that he read Prince Hohenstiel-Schwangau. Heaven knows it would take nothing less to take most of us through the Prince!"
    Note Source: Courier 12/18/1897


  109. The Prince of the House of David, or Three Years in the Holy City

  110. Author: Ingraham, Joseph Holt
    Title: The Prince of the House of David, or Three Years in the Holy City
    Date: 1855
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In My Antonia, Jim Burden reads The Prince of the House of David, or Three Years in the Holy Cityaloud to his grandmother.
    Note Source: My Antonia Book I, Chap.13


  111. Prince Otto

  112. Author: Stevenson, Robert Louis
    Title: Prince Otto
    Date: 1885
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "It is probable that before the advancement of encroaching realism and 'veritism' and all other literary unpleasantness Stevenson will be relegated to the children's bookshelves, along with Scott and Cooper and the elder Dumas....Prince Otto is so seldom mentioned by people whose business it is to mention books that it may be very bad taste to like it. But it has a few very staunch admirers and ought to have many more.... It is not the finished book that The Master of Ballentrae or David Balfour is, but anyone who has read and liked [Alphonse] Daudet's Kings in Exile [1879] will find in Prince Otto deep and lasting pleasure."
    Note Source: Journal 12/23/1894


  113. "The Princess"

  114. Author: Tennyson, Alfred, Lord
    Title: "The Princess"
    Date: 1847
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In a 1901 Journal article, Cather misquotes Tennyson in her piece on North Pole exploration, writing, "Ah, dark and true and tender is the north!" In "Eric Hermannson's Soul," Eric is described much like "Tennyson's amorous Prince": "A prince I was, blue-eyed, and fair in face,/ Of temper amorous, as the first of May,/ With lengths of yellow ringlet, like a girl,/ For on my cradle shone the Northern star."
    Note Source: Journal 3/17/1901; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 368


  115. The Princess Aline

  116. Author: Davis, Richard Harding
    Title: The Princess Aline
    Date: 1895
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Some of us who are quite devotees of Mr. Davis will even admit that we like the Princess Sonia [in Julia Magruder's story] better than the Princess Aline."
    Note Source: Journal 5/12/1895


  117. The Princess Casamassima

  118. Author: James, Henry
    Title: The Princess Casamassima
    Date: 1886
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "He treats the girl in the cage quite as respectfully as he would treat a princess of blood, and one feels the same courteous, unsparing hand that did such eminent justice to poor little Pinnie in The Princess Casamassima.
    Note Source: Leader 12/2/1898


  119. The Princess Sonia

  120. Author: Magruder, Julia
    Title: The Princess Sonia
    Date: 1895
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: After reading early installments of the story in the Century, Cather wrote that "Some of us who are quite devotees of Mr. Davis [author of The Princess Aline] will even admit that we like the Princess Sonia better than the Princess Aline," but she grew to dislike it by the end.
    Note Source: Journal 5/12/1895, 6/9/1895


  121. "The Prisoner of Chillon"

  122. Author: Byron, George Gordon
    Title: "The Prisoner of Chillon"
    Date: 1816
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In O Pioneers!, Alexandra Bergson recalls "a poem she had liked in her schooldays after leaving Frank Shabata at the prison: 'Henceforth the world will only be/A wider prison-house to me.'" Lines 322-3 of the poem actually read: "And the whole earth would henceforth be/A wider prison unto me." In Cather's story "A Resurrection," Martin Dempster asks Marjorie Pierson to recite the last four lines of "The Prisoner of Chillon."
    Note Source: O Pioneers! Part V, Chap. 2; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 438


  123. The Prisoner of Zenda

  124. Author: Hope, Anthony (Anthony Hope Hawkins)
    Title: The Prisoner of Zenda
    Date: 1894
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather "was particularly fond of [Anthony] Hope's novel The Prisoner of Zenda, which sold more than 625,000 copies in 1894, and was successfully adapted for the stage." In a 1901 Courier article, Cather says he "might have done what he pleased with us eight years ago and made us all for a space prisoners of Zenda, has since done nothing much above the clever dilettante ...,"
    Note Source: World and the Parish 1:268; Courier 8/10/1901


  125. The Prisoners of Hope

  126. Author: Johnston, Mary
    Title: The Prisoners of Hope
    Date: 1898
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather says The Prisoners of Hope is characterized by "an illuminative imagination and a deep vein of sensitive romanticism."
    Note Source: Courier 3/24/1900


  127. The Private Papers of Henry Ryecroft

  128. Author: Gissing, George
    Title: The Private Papers of Henry Ryecroft
    Date: 1903
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "When the green student lamp at our French soireees emitted its warning gurgle, like the lamp of Henry Ryecroft in the Gissing book, Willa would say in melodramatic tones, 'The fatal moment has arrived,' and I [George Seibel] would rise to refill the reservoir from a grimy can of Elaine, a kerosene highly commended for midnight oil, now only a figure of speech."
    Note Source: Willa Cather Remembered 19


  129. The Prodigal Parents

  130. Author: Lewis, Sinclair
    Title: The Prodigal Parents
    Date: 1938
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather tells Lewis that The Prodigal Parents reminded her of America's goodness and problems.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1392


  131. Prose Fancies

  132. Author: Le Gallienne, Richard
    Title: Prose Fancies
    Date: 1894-96
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Much was forgiven his earlier works, Prose Fancies, The Book-Bills of Narcissus, etc. because they promised better things."
    Note Source: Leader 4/8/1898


  133. Pudd'nhead Wilson (novel)

  134. Author: Twain, Mark (Samuel Clemens)
    Title: Pudd'nhead Wilson (novel)
    Date: 1894
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: On Frank Mayo's adaptation for the stage of Twain's Pudd'nhead Wilson: "Decidedly there are very few American plays as clever as Pudd'nhead Wilson....Mr. Mayo was not mistaken when he thought he saw great dramatic possibilities in Mark Twain's novel. With the exception of the necessary omission of a large part of Pudd'nhead's Calendar, the play is quite as good as the novel, and that is putting it pretty strongly, for very few of the best plays are really as good as even the poor novels. Of course the pith and heart of the play is the race question, the struggle between the Negro blood and the white, the demonstration that circumstances and environment could not make a slave a gentleman nor a gentleman a slave. As Roxy says in the last act when her own son is crouching at her feet, 'Taint no use nohow, you ain't no 'count. I suppose it's the nigger in you.'"
    Note Source: Leader 2/9/1897


  135. Pudd'nhead Wilson (play)

  136. Author: Mayo, Frank
    Title: Pudd'nhead Wilson (play)
    Date: 1895
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: On Frank Mayo's adaptation for the stage of Twain's Pudd'nhead Wilson: "Decidedly there are very few American plays as clever as Pudd'nhead Wilson.... Mr. Mayo was not mistaken when he thought he saw great dramatic possibilities in Mark Twain's novel. With the exception of the necessary omission of a large part of Pudd'nhead's Calendar, the play is quite as good as the novel, and that is putting it pretty strongly, for very few of the best plays are really as good as even the poor novels. Of course the pith and heart of the play is the race question, the struggle between the Negro blood and the white, the demonstration that circumstances and environment could not make a slave a gentleman nor a gentleman a slave. As Roxy says in the last act when her own son is crouching at her feet, 'Taint no use nohow, you ain't no 'count. I suppose it's the nigger in you.'"
    Note Source: Leader 2/9/1897


    Quatre-vingt-treize

  1. Author: Hugo, Victor
    Title: Quatre-vingt-treize
    Date: 1874
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In Alexander's Bridge, Alexander Bartley's double life is said to be like a "cannon rolling in the hold of the vessel." According to March (369), the reference is to a scene in Hugo's novel in which a gunner struggles desperately with his loose cannon that has turned into a destructive "monster."
    Note Source: Alexander's Bridge Chap. 5


  2. The Quintessence of Ibsenism

  3. Author: Shaw, George Bernard
    Title: The Quintessence of Ibsenism
    Date: 1891
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Mentioned in review of Shaw's The Perfect Wagnerite.
    Note Source: Leader 5/27/1898


  4. Quo Vadis

  5. Author: Sienkiewicz, Henryk
    Title: Quo Vadis
    Date: 1897
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Calls Quo Vadis? a "powerful, remarkable book," but less "meritorious" than his other work: With Fire and Sword, The Deluge, Pan Michael, Without Dogma, and "several others," translated from Polish into English by Jeremiah Curtin.
    Note Source: Home Monthly 2/1898


    The Rainbow

  1. Author: Lawrence, D.H.
    Title: The Rainbow
    Date: 1915
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "A book like The Rainbow . . . sharply reminds one how vast a distance lies between emotion and mere sensory reactions."
    Note Source: Not Under Forty 50


  2. "Record of Badalia Herodsfoot"

  3. Author: Kipling, Rudyard
    Title: "Record of Badalia Herodsfoot"
    Date: 1893
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Of the British shopgirl, Cather says: "Whoever thinks that Kipling exaggerated conditions in his 'Record of Badalia Herodsfoot,' let him come and see." The story is from Many Inventions.
    Note Source: Journal 8/10/1902


  4. Red as a Rose Is She

  5. Author: Broughton, Rhoda
    Title: Red as a Rose Is She
    Date: 1878
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "In these deplorable days when Knighthood is in Flower to the tune of half a million copies, and when novels of the same literary fibre as Molly Bawn and Red as a Rose Is She are tricked out in crinoline and powdered hair and odds-bodikins -- whatever those may be -- and sent forth heralds of the revival of Romance, it is a pleasant experience to encounter such a novel as [Mary Johnston's To Have and To Hold] bearing the stamp of a superior mentality and of an individuality strong enought to do freshly and well what has been done often and badly."
    Note Source: Courier 3/24/1900


  6. The Red Badge of Courage

  7. Author: Crane, Stephen
    Title: The Red Badge of Courage
    Date: 1895
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather remembers that "the grammar certainly was bad" in The Red Badge of Courage. In One of Ours, when Claude first sees wounded men from battle, he reflects: "To shed bright blood, to wear the red badge of courage,--that was one thing; but to be reduced to this was quite another."
    Note Source: Library 6/23/1900; One of Ours Book V, Chap. 3


  8. Red Bread

  9. Author: Hindus, Maurice
    Title: Red Bread
    Date: 1931
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather wishes to obtain copies of Red Bread to give for Christmas presents. The book is about Russia.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1089


  10. Red Cloud Chief

  11. Title: Red Cloud Chief
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: On 10 May 1889 and on 17 May 1889, the Red Cloud Chief ran a story about the village water tank. The story provides the basis for the story of the tramp who drowns himself in the water tank in The Song of the Lark.
    Note Source: The Song of the Lark Book I, Chap. 1


  12. Red Cross Magazine

  13. Title: Red Cross Magazine
    Date: 1918-1921
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Numerous articles on war-related topics appeared in the Red Cross Magazine between 1918 and 1921, two of which were written by Cather.
    Note Source: One of Ours "Historical Essay" Scholarly Edition 653


  14. The Reds of the Midi

  15. Author: Gras, Felix
    Title: The Reds of the Midi
    Date: 1896
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather assigned The Reds of the Midi to Fred Otte when she was tutoring him in Pittsburgh.
    Note Source: Willa Cather Remembered 45


  16. "Regulus to the Carthaginians"

  17. Author: Kellogg, Elijah
    Title: "Regulus to the Carthaginians"
    Date: 1857
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Treasure of Far Island," Douglass Burnham claims that he can still recite "Regulus to the Carthaginians" just as he had as a child.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 268


  18. Reisebilder

  19. Author: Heine, Heinrich
    Title: Reisebilder
    Date: 1820-21
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Claude Wheeler flips through a copy of Reisebilder.
    Note Source: One of Ours Book 5, Chap. 5


  20. Relations des Jesuites--Annee 1648 Vol. 2

  21. Title: Relations des Jesuites--Annee 1648 Vol. 2
    Date: 1858
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In Shadows on the Rock, Cecile Auclair hears stories of "Mother" Catherine de Saint-Augustin, an historical figure, from Mother Juschereau. Cecile ponders the dedication of the early Jesuit missionaries to New France.
    Note Source: Shadows on the Rock Book I, Chap. 5


  22. Reminiscences of William Wetmore Story

  23. Author: Phillips, Mary E.
    Title: Reminiscences of William Wetmore Story
    Date: 1897
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Story was one of these men whose spiritual influence in art so vastly surpassed their achievements, and it is on this dominating, magnetic personality that his present biographer dwells," according to Cather.
    Note Source: Leader 1/28/1898


  24. "Reply to his Tailor"

  25. Author: Burns, Robert
    Title: "Reply to his Tailor"
    Date: 1799
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Dr. Archie "loved the poetry of Robert Burns," and often read Burns' "Reply to his Tailor" "aloud to himself in his office, late at night, after a glass of hot toddy."
    Note Source: Song of the Lark Part I, Chap. 12


  26. Return to the Future

  27. Author: Undset, Sigrid
    Title: Return to the Future
    Date: 1942
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Mentions Undset's comparison of the Russian and Japanese cultures.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1578


  28. Richard II

  29. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: Richard II
    Date: 1597
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "I loved to hear her [Mrs. Fields] read Richard II, or the great, melancholy speeches of Henry IV in the Palace at Westminster.
    Note Source: Not Under Forty 63


  30. Richard III

  31. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: Richard III
    Date: 1597
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Flavia and Her Artists," Arthur Hamilton says that Imogen Willard is so "girt about with illusions" that she "casts a shadow in the sun" I:1, ll. 26-27. In an 1895 Journal article, Cather writes: "It is a grave question as to just how far the historical plays of Shakespeare are fitted for the modern stage. They were not the product of his highest thought or most spontaneous inspiration." Plays mentioned in this essay: Henry IV, Henry V, Henry VI, Henry VIII, Richard III.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 172; Journal 1/20/1895.


  32. Richelieu

  33. Author: Bulwer-Lytton, Edward
    Title: Richelieu
    Date: 1839
    Genre: verse drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather reviewed Walker Whiteside's production
    Note Source: NSJ


  34. "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner"

  35. Author: Coleridge, Samuel Taylor
    Title: "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner"
    Date: 1798
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Mrs. Forrester describes a Miss Erma Salton-Smith as "Tall, very animated, glittering eyes, like the Ancient Mariner's."
    Note Source: A Lost Lady Part I, Chap. 6


  36. Author: Coleridge, Samuel Taylor
    Title: "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner"
    Date:  1798
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: "As [Mrs. Johnson] delivered this thrust, her eyes glittered more than the Ancient Mariner's, Thea thought.... She so enjoyed an opportunity to rebuke Thea, that, tightly corseted as she was, she could scarcely control her breathing, and her lace and her gold watch chain rose and fell 'with short, uneasy motion.'"
    Note Source: Song of the Lark Part I, Chap. 8


  37. The Ring and the Book

  38. Author: Browning, Robert
    Title: The Ring and the Book
    Date: 1868-9
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1894 Journal, Cather writes: "Who will elevate taste, and, as Browning says, will 'save the soul besides?'" (Bk. XII, 1. 867) In an 1899 Leader article, Cather quotes Browning's poem in her review of Richard Whiteing's No. 5 John Street. In a piece on Frank Norris, Cather quotes : "Not only by a comet's rush,/But by a rose's birth" (Bk. VI).
    Note Source: Journal 10/14/1894; Leader 6/17/1899; Courier 4/7/1900


  39. "Rip Van Winkle"

  40. Author: Irving, Washington
    Title: "Rip Van Winkle"
    Date: 1819
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: On Brownville: "It is a gentle, sunny, picturesque sort of decay as if the old town had lain down to sleep in the hills like Rip Van Winkle and was busy putting in thirty years."
    Note Source: Journal 8/12/1894


  41. The Rise of Silas Lapham

  42. Author: Howells, William Dean
    Title: The Rise of Silas Lapham
    Date: 1885
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather considers The Rise of Silas Lapham dull required reading.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1649


  43. The Rivals

  44. Author: Coppee, Francois
    Title: The Rivals
    Date: 1893
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "One of the most musical of poets, the most delightful of story tellers"; "M. Coppee is best known in this country by his short stories, 'The Substitute,' 'Two Clowns,' 'The Captain's Vices' and his perfect little romance, 'The Rivals.'"
    Note Source: Journal 2/17/1895


  45. "The Roan Stallion"

  46. Author: Jeffers, Robinson
    Title: "The Roan Stallion"
    Date: 1925
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather admires "The Roan Stallion."
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1014


  47. The Robe

  48. Author: Douglas, Lloyd
    Title: The Robe
    Date: 1943
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather suggests that a wartime measure be to trim margins of The Robe to save paper for printing Julian Huxley or T.S. Eliot.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1643


  49. Robinson Crusoe

  50. Author: Defoe, Daniel
    Title: Robinson Crusoe
    Date: 1719
    Genre: novel
    Note Relating to Cather: In One of Ours, Bayliss found "arithmetic and geography more interesting than 'Robinson Crusoe.'" In My Antonia, Jim Burden "got Robinson Crusoe and tried to read, but his life on the island seemed dull compared with ours" after Mr. Shimerda's suicide. Nelson Mackenzie of "The Prodigies" says Robinson Crusoe is among his children's favorite books. In O Pioneers!, Carl Linstrum has pictures of Robinson Crusoe for his magic lantern. In The Professor's House, Tom Outland and Roddy Blake have a copy of Defoe's novel with them on Blue Mesa. After Tom comes back from Washington, Bill Hook refers to Roddy and Tom as playing Robinson Crusoe. In "Before Breakfast" Henry Grenfell refers to "his man Friday." Fanny Butcher recalls that Cather told her "that The Archbishop, like Robinson Crusoe, was a kind of writing colored by a kind of country, like a folk song."
    Note Source: One of Ours Book I, Chap. 16; My Antonia Book I, Chap. 14; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 412; O Pioneers! Part I, Chap. 1; The Professor's House Book II, Chap. 1, 6; The Old Beauty and Others 159; Willa Cather Remembered 102


  51. "Rock of ages, cleft for me"

  52. Title: "Rock of ages, cleft for me"
    Date: 1776
    Genre: song
    Note Relating to Cather: John March (633-4) identifies the recitation that Lily Fisher gives in The Song of the Lark as attributed to both Ella Maud Moore and Edward H. Rice. It was accompanied and was to be "sung or recited." The hymn was published by Augustus Montagne Toplady of England in 1776.
    Note Source: The Song of the Lark Book I, Chap. 8


  53. Roi des Montagnes

  54. Author: About, Edmond
    Title: Roi des Montagnes
    Date: 1886
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: George Seibel says About's book Roi des Montagnes was one of the "uproarious trifles" he and Cather read together in Pittsburgh.
    Note Source: Willa Cather Remembered 13


  55. "Rolla"

  56. Author: Musset, Alfred de
    Title: "Rolla"
    Date: 1833
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In a piece in the Nebraska State Journal on John Ruskin, Cather quotes Part IV of Alfred de Musset's "Rolla."In "Flavia and Her Artists," when Imogen Willard sees M. Emile Roux, she is shocked at how unlike he was to the picture his publishers liked to use, that of a "slender, black-stocked Rolla he had looked at twenty."
    Note Source: Journal 5/17/1896; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 158


  57. The Roman and the Teuton

  58. Author: Kingsley, Charles
    Title: The Roman and the Teuton
    Date: 1864
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: One of the epigraphs to The Troll Garden is from Kingsley's Lecture 1, "The Forest Children" (1-2): "Fancy to yourself a great Troll-garden, such as our forefathers dreamed of often fifteen hundred years ago;--a fairy palace, with a fairy garden; and all around the primaeval wood."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 148


  59. The Romance of Zion Chapel

  60. Author: Le Gallienne, Richard
    Title: The Romance of Zion Chapel
    Date: 1898
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "The Romance of Zion Chapel is like its predecessors; a promissory note written with violet ink on scented paper, signed by a bankrupt genius whose paper is at a discount in the market."
    Note Source: Leader 4/8/1898


  61. Romances sans paroles

  62. Author: Verlaine, Paul
    Title: Romances sans paroles
    Date: 1874
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: "He called one of his greatest volumes Romances Without Words, and indeed they are almost that. He created a new verbal art of communicating sensations not only by the meaning of words, but of their relation, harmony and sound."
    Note Source: Journal 2/2/1896


  63. Romeo and Juliet

  64. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: Romeo and Juliet
    Date: 1597
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Nanette, An Aside," after Nanette tells Tradutorri that she loves the head waiter, Tradutorri says that she feels like "a veritable mere Capulet. In "The Treasure of Far Island," the narrator says that the same moon that shone over Romeo and Juliet and Paris shines on Douglass Burnham and Margie Van Dyck, and in "Flavia and Her Artists," Jemima Broadwood refers to "the unhappy daughter of the Capulets." According to an 1894 Journal article, Cather writes: "Juliet was certainly the most girlish of Shakespeare's heroines, but she is more than a girl. No one can read the 'Gallop apace' scene (scene 2, act 3) and say that Shakespeare did not mean Juliet to be a woman." According to an 1899 Courier article, Cather writes: Describing playwright Clyde Fitch, Cather quotes Act 1, scene 2: "Too soon marred are those too early made."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 408; 282; 155; Journal 3/25/1894; Courier 1/21/1899


  65. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: Romeo and Juliet
    Date: 1597
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "Can one imagine anything more terrible than the story of Romeo and Juliet rewritten in prose by D.H. Lawrence?"
    Note Source: Not Under Forty 51


  66. Romola

  67. Author: Eliot, George
    Title: Romola
    Date: 1863
    Genre: novel
    Note Relating to Cather: On Elwyn A. Barron's dramatization of the novel for Julia Marlowe: "Romola is the most tedious and impossible as it is the most studied of all George Eliot's novels. It is great in its way, but not as a novel. Then what will it be as a play?"
    Note Source: Courier 9/7/1895


  68. "A Room of One's Own"

  69. Author: Woolf, Virginia
    Title: "A Room of One's Own"
    Date: 1929
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: See Woolf for difficulties of female writers.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1033


  70. Rosedale

  71. Author: Wallack, Lester
    Title: Rosedale
    Date: 1863
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "Melodrama of half a century ago looks queer enough when viewed through modern eyes. I suppose when Lester Wallack wrote Rosedale that the situations really had some life in them, and that gypsies and stolen children had still all their naïve and artless charm for the untutored gallery....But along with all the old-fashioned effects and devices, its queer comedy and black ponds and stolen children, Rosedale has one thing which many a better play has not, it has 'literary quality,' the quaint stilted quality of the time, but still quality."
    Note Source: Leader 5/25/1897


  72. Rosemary

  73. Author: Carson, Murray and Louis N. Parker
    Title: Rosemary
    Date: 1896
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Reviewing John Drew in Rosemary: "It is just as nearly no play at all as anything I ever saw. The redeeming feature is costuming, and even that is totally incorrect historically."
    Note Source: Journal 5/2/1897


  74. Author: Parker, Louis N. and Murray Carson
    Title: Rosemary
    Date: 1896
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Reviewing John Drew in Rosemary: "It is just as nearly no play at all as anything I ever saw. The redeeming feature is costuming, and even that is totally incorrect historically."
    Note Source: Journal 5/2/1897


  75. Rough Hewn

  76. Author: Fisher, Dorothy Canfield
    Title: Rough Hewn
    Date: 1922
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In a letter, Cather critiques Rough Hewn, mostly favorably. In an essay about A Lost Lady, the author writes: "She certainly read Dorothy Canfield Fisher's Rough Hewn and may have responded to its character Neale in revising the original name of her peephole character from Duncan to Niel. After reading Rough Hewn in October 1922, Cather wrote to Fisher that there might be too much about Neale in college, then continued as if describing her own problems with the character she had been calling Duncan: too much about a character blurs it. She may be hipped on withholding a character, but she believes that it is the most effective technique."
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #635; A Lost Lady Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay" 207


  77. The Royal Box

  78. Author: Coghlan, Charles
    Title: The Royal Box
    Date: 1897
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Adapted from Dumas' 1836 comedy Kean, or Disorder and Genius: "In his adaptation Mr. Coghlan has unfortunately weakened the love story, which is none too fervid in the original, but he has given the play something that Dumas never did—atmosphere, that rare and elusive quality, that volatile, indefinable something which gives one the actual impression of a given time and society."
    Note Source: Courier 4/30/1898


  79. Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam

  80. Author: FitzGerald, Edward
    Title: Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam
    Date: 1859
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In a Journal piece on the death of Paul Verlaine, Cather ends with a quote from Rubaiyat I, 28, stanza LVIII. In Willa Cather Remembered, George Seibel credits FitzGerald's Omar as being one of the influences on Cather's poetry.
    Note Source: Journal 2/2/1896; Willa Cather Remembered 13


  81. Rupert of Hentzau

  82. Author: Hope, Anthony (Anthony Hope Hawkins)
    Title: Rupert of Hentzau
    Date: 1898
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "So Anthony Hope has succumbed to the temptation of money and has written a sequel to The Prisoner of Zenda, the first installment of which appeared in the December McClure's. It starts out very well indeed; if I had not read The Prisoner of Zenda I should say the sequel was a downright good story, but having read the Prisoner I can only say that I greatly fear Mr. Hawkins will spoil a better story than he makes."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 1/1898


  83. Ruy Blas

  84. Author: Hugo, Victor
    Title: Ruy Blas
    Date: 1838
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "When you hear a play of Moliere's given at the Francais, or sit through five interminable acts of Ruy Blas in which every line is given its full value, you begin to realize what respect for tradition means."
    Note Source: Journal 8/24/1902


    Salammbo

  1. Author: Flaubert, Gustave
    Title: Salammbo
    Date: 1862
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather uses Flaubert's Salammbo as an illustration as she talks about the way in which a writer can approach a theme set in a "long-vanished" society. In Willa Cather Remembered, George Seibel is quoted: " . . . We ploughed through our adored Flaubert. Madam Bovary wasn't so hard, but La Tentation de Saint Antoine and Salammbo proved most refractory until I discovered that a Latin lexicon and classical dictionary were more help than Littre."
    Note Source: Not Under Forty 97; Willa Cather Remembered 13


  2. Salt and Pepper for Young Folks

  3. Author: Pyle, Howard
    Title: Salt and Pepper for Young Folks
    Date: 1886
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Howard Pyle "is as careful and painstaking and artistic with his children's books as the very best novelists are with their novels. The Wonder Clock [1888] or Salt and Pepper for Young Folks [1886] cannot fail to make children happy. But best of them all is Pyle's Otto of the Silver Hand. It is a story of German chivalry in the days of the robber barons, and when a boy is through with it he has a very fair idea what that phrase 'the Middle Ages' meant."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 1/1897


  4. Sapho

  5. Author: Daudet, Alphonse
    Title: Sapho
    Date: 1884
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Eden Bower finds "books like 'Sapho' and 'Mademoiseele de Maupin,' secretly sold in paper covers throughout Illinois." In a World and the Parish review, Cather's sympathetic portrayal of a prostitute in "At the Theatre" (Nebraska State Journal 12/14/1893) "may have owed something to Daudet's Sapho; Cather apparently read the book in 1891," according to a letter to Mariel Gere. In an 1898 Courier article, Cather writes: "But once and only once did Daudet rise to the full measure of his power, only once did Tartarin become wholly serious and possessed of a great creative purpose, only once did Daudet entirely sacrifice the Provencal to the artist; that was when he wrote Sapho."
    Note Source: Uncle Valentine and Other Stories 158; World and the Parish 1:24; Courier 1/22/1898


  6. Sartor Resartus

  7. Author: Carlyle, Thomas
    Title: Sartor Resartus
    Date: 1833-34
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: The Professor's House, the following is written: "Cather owned a copy of the book when she was a high-school student in Red Cloud, and Carlyle was the subject of her first published essay when she was a sub-freshman at the University of Nebraska." In a review of Whiteing's The Island (1888), Cather says: "Richard Whiteing recalls the Carlyle of Sartor Resartus; a Carlyle somewhat tamed, as it were ...".
    Note Source: The Professor's House Scholarly Edition 349; Leader 12/2/1899


  8. The Scarlet Letter

  9. Author: Hawthorne, Nathaniel
    Title: The Scarlet Letter
    Date: 1850
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Novel Demeuble," Cather suggests that The Scarlet Letter serves as an exhibit of "how truly in the spirit of art is the mise-en-scene presented."
    Note Source: Not Under Forty 49


  10. Author: Hawthorne, Nathaniel
    Title: The Scarlet Letter
    Date: 1850
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Professor's House, Godfrey St. Peter considers Horace Langtry's letting students receive credit in history classes for reading fiction, such as Hawthorne's, a travesty.
    Note Source: The Professor's House Book I, Chap. 3


  11. Scenes de la vie de Boheme

  12. Author: Murger, Henri
    Title: Scenes de la vie de Boheme
    Date: 1851
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "In spite of its spirit and wit, its merry escapades and youthful adventures, [Scenes de la vie de Boheme] is one of the saddest of books."
    Note Source: Journal 4/5/1896


  13. Schat-Chen: History, Traditions, and Narratives of the Queres Indians of Laguna and Acoma

  14. Author: Gunn, John
    Title: Schat-Chen: History, Traditions, and Narratives of the Queres Indians of Laguna and Acoma
    Date: 1917
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Source for Death Comes for the Archbishop
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay" 367, note 9


  15. School for Saints

  16. Author: Craigie, Pearl Mary Teresa
    Title: School for Saints
    Date: 1897
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "The novel is clumsily constructed and is singularly lacking in directness and continuity. Incidents are loosely strung together with small regard for their relative importance....As to the historical and political features of the novel, and they seem to be the principal ones, they scarcely do more than divert the interest from the story and perplex the reader....She has tried to write a Disraeli novel in a Bulwer-Lytton manner and she has succeeded in embodying the faults of both."
    Note Source: Leader 1/7/1898


  17. Author: Hobbes, John Oliver (pseud. of Pearl Mary Teresa Craigie)
    Title: School for Saints
    Date: 1897
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "The novel is clumsily constructed and is singularly lacking in directness and continuity. Incidents are loosely strung together with small regard for their relative importance.... As to the historical and political features of the novel, and they seem to be the principal ones, they scarcely do more than divert the interest from the story and perplex the reader.... She has tried to write a Disraeli novel in a Bulwer-Lytton manner and she has succeeded in embodying the faults of both."
    Note Source: Leader 1/7/1898


  18. School of Femininity: A Book for and about Women as they are interpreted through feminine writers of yesterday and today

  19. Author: Lawrence, Margaret
    Title: School of Femininity: A Book for and about Women as they are interpreted through feminine writers of yesterday and today
    Date: 1936
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather recommends that Carrie Sherwood read a chapter in School of Femininity. Chapter 11,"Artistes," includes Katherine Mansfield, Willa Cather, Clemence Dane and Virginia Woolf.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1455


  20. Science and Health

  21. Author: Eddy, Mary Baker
    Title: Science and Health
    Date: 1881
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather offers to loan her copy of Science and Health to Hon. William E. Chandler.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #129


  22. Scum of the Earth

  23. Author: Koestler, Arthur
    Title: Scum of the Earth
    Date: 1941
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Listed in a note at the top of letter.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1563


  24. "A Seamark: A Threnody for Robert Louis Stevenson"

  25. Author: Carman, Bliss
    Title: "A Seamark: A Threnody for Robert Louis Stevenson"
    Date: 1875
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather says that Carman's "poem on the death of Robert Louis Stevenson... is one of his most successful...." (included in By the Aurelian Wall).
    Note Source: Gazette 11/30/1902


  26. Seasoned Timber

  27. Author: Fisher, Dorothy Canfield
    Title: Seasoned Timber
    Date: 1939
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather remarks specifically at some length on Fisher's novel Seasoned Timber.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1459


  28. The Seats of the Mighty: A Romance of Old Quebec

  29. Author: Parker, Gilbert
    Title: The Seats of the Mighty: A Romance of Old Quebec
    Date: 1896
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather describes the author as one of "a generation of young men who are making the most of Canada's literary possibilities."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 9/1897


  30. The Second Mrs. Tanqueray

  31. Author: Pinero, Arthur Wing
    Title: The Second Mrs. Tanqueray
    Date: 1893
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1894 Journal article Cather writes: "Of course the modern play must begin with marriage. The Second Mrs. Tanqueray, with which Mr. and Mrs. Kendal have been astonishing and shocking the east, begins with marriage and ends with misery." In an 1899 Courier article Cather writes: "In the first place, it [The Second Mrs. Tanqueray] is a great play, the greatest play written in the English tongue for many a long day." In an 1899 Courier article Cather calls The Second Mrs. Tanqueray an "intense and commanding piece of work."
    Note Source: Journal 2/7/1894; Courier 7/22/1899; Courier 12/23/1899


  32. Secret Service

  33. Author: Gillette, William
    Title: Secret Service
    Date: 1898
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: The Secret Service is "called the great American war play. I am sorry that I cannot agree to that, but it does not seem a great play to me. It is, however, an almost preternaturally clever one.... When you get home you wonder how you were 'worked' so completely."
    Note Source: Courier 1/1/1898


  34. Sesame and Lilies

  35. Author: Ruskin, John
    Title: Sesame and Lilies
    Date: 1865
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather:  "His death will probably call public attention to him, and we will glance again through the enchanted pages of The Stones of Venice and wonder at their melody"; Cather also quotes Modern Painters and Sesame and Lilies, Lecture I ("Of Kings' Treasuries").
    Note Source: Journal 5/17/1896


  36. The Seven Seas

  37. Author: Kipling, Rudyard
    Title: The Seven Seas
    Date: 1896
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: "It has all the freshness and vividness of a man who knows the world, a bigger, wilder part of the world than ours, and who has seen with a perception strangely keen and sympathetic into all the experiences of men. But compare it, if you will, with Keats' 'St. Agnes Eve,' or with anything of Shelley's. Then would you wish to place Kipling among the immortal bards?"
    Note Source: Journal 5/16/1897


  38. Shakespeare's Heroines: Characteristics of Women, Moral, Poetical, and Historical

  39. Author: Jameson, Anna
    Title: Shakespeare's Heroines: Characteristics of Women, Moral, Poetical, and Historical
    Date: 1832
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather remarks that the Biblical characters in Elizabeth Cady Stanton's Woman's Bible are "each taken up and idealized and romanced about and fondled and wept over, much as Juliet and Rosalind are in Mrs. Jamison's book on the Girlhood of Shakespeare's Heroines."
    Note Source: Leader 4/8/1898


  40. She

  41. Author: Haggard, H. Rider
    Title: She
    Date: 1887
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Even [Rider] Haggard's She was universally read because the world has not yet outgrown the liking for fairy tales."
    Note Source: Journal 12/23/1894


  42. Shenandoah

  43. Author: Howard, Bronson
    Title: Shenandoah
    Date: 1897
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In My Antonia, Jim Burden and Lina Lingard see Shenandoah in Lincoln. In an 1895 Journal, Cather writes: "While the play is unavoidably as full of patriotism as a small boy on the Fourth of July, Mr. Howard kept it remarkably free from those mawkish and motheaten phrases and those maudlin and sentimental lines which usually find their way into military dramas. The fact that the much-enduring American flag is not once trotted out upon the stage is worth mentioning, as it is an instance of the self-respecting tone of the whole drama."
    Note Source: My Antonia Book III, Chap. 3; Journal 4/17/1895


  44. Ships That Pass in the Night

  45. Author: Harraden, Beatrice
    Title: Ships That Pass in the Night
    Date: 1893
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Describing a visit to the circus dressing room: "The iron-jaw woman was reading Ships That Pass in the Night, and I noticed that it was an 'authorized edition,' which made me feel a little in awe of her; I only possess a fifty-cent copy myself"; the English novel, set in a winter resort for consumptive patients, sold over a million copies.
    Note Source: Journal 5/27/1894


  46. Shore Acres

  47. Author: Herne, James A.
    Title: Shore Acres
    Date: 1893
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "Certainly Shore Acres is an American play; the conditions and characters are indigenous to the New England coast. It comes nearer than any other play to doing for New England life on the stage what Howells has done for it in fiction."
    Note Source: Leader 12/29/1896


  48. Short as Any Dream

  49. Author: Sergeant, Elizabeth Shepley
    Title: Short as Any Dream
    Date: 1929
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather compares Sergeant's novel Short as Any Dream to Woolf's Orlando, then critiques it.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #981


  50. The Shorter Catechism of the Westminster Assembly

  51. Author: Tucker, Anthony
    Title: The Shorter Catechism of the Westminster Assembly
    Date: 1648
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Paul's Case," Paul thinks that all the children on his street learn "the shorter Catchism." It began with the question "What is the chief end of man?" The response was "To glorify God, and to enjoy him for ever."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 248


  52. A Shropshire Lad

  53. Author: Housman, A.E.
    Title: A Shropshire Lad
    Date: 1896
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In a letter, Cather admits Housman's influence on her poetry and talks of visiting him. In Willa Cather Remembered, Seibel reports that Cather found Housman in Shropshire "'long and thin and gray,' and not one modern book on the shelves of his study." In a 1900 Courier article, Cather writes: "There is not one lyric in the collection [Shropshire Lad] which has not ... absolute genuineness." In a 1902 Journal article, Cather writes: "Anyone who had ever read Housman's verse at all must certainly wish to live awhile among the hillside fields, the brooklands and villages which moved a modern singer to lyric expression of a simplicity, spontanaeity and grace the like of which we have scarcely seen in the last hundred years." In an 1897 Home Monthly article, Cather uses the first two stanzas of poem XXXVIII in A.E. Housman's A Shropshire Lad as an epigraph. In an 1897 Courier article, Cather quotes from poem XXII in Shropshire Lad as an epigraph for her column on President McKinley in Pittsburgh. In an 1898 Courier article, Cather quotes (with minor inaccuracies) poem XIX, "To an Athlete Dying Young," as epigraph to a piece on Lieutenant Frank W. Jenkins, killed on the battleship Maine. "Tis time, I think, by Wenlock Town," from A.E. Housman's Shropshire Lad, is used as an epigraph for a Home Monthly column in October 1897.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #88; Willa Cather Remembered 17; Courier 3/10/1900; Journal 7/27/1902; Home Monthly 11/1897; Courier 11/27/1897; Courier 4/23/1898; Home Monthly 10/1897


  54. The Sign of the Four

  55. Author: Doyle, Arthur Conan
    Title: The Sign of the Four
    Date: 1890
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "For the most part [mystery stories] are read and thrown aside and forgotten as quickly as a puzzle that is solved, for they contain none of the elements of lasting satisfaction. Of course there are notable exceptions. ... there is Conan Doyle's The Sign of the Four and The Mystery of Cloomber that have established their author's reputation for fiction that is highly sensational and yet by no means devoid of good workmanship and literary skill."
    Note Source: Journal 3/22/1896


  56. Silas Marner

  57. Author: Eliot, George
    Title: Silas Marner
    Date: 1861
    Genre: novel
    Note Relating to Cather: Silas Marner is slow reading but not dull.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1651


  58. A Silent Singer

  59. Author: Morris, Clara
    Title: A Silent Singer
    Date: 1899
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "It is now several years since this well-known actress began to contribute short stories to periodicals.... These stories of hers have little beauty of form, but they have force; no symmetry, but considerable power."
    Note Source: Leader 7/15/1899


  60. The Single Hound

  61. Author: Sarton, May
    Title: The Single Hound
    Date: 1938
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: May Sarton's characters do not "resemble real people."
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1404


  62. "Sing Me a Song"

  63. Author: Stevenson, Robert Louis
    Title: "Sing Me a Song"
    Date: 1886
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Treasure of Far Island," Douglass Burnham recalls a line from Stevenson when he sees the island from the train taking him home: "Once on a day he sailed away, over the sea to Skye."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 266


  64. Sir George Tressady

  65. Author: Ward, Mary (Mrs. Humphry Ward)
    Title: Sir George Tressady
    Date: 1896
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Don't read Sir George Tressady, Mrs. Humphry Ward's latest novel. It's not a Christian duty, and it will bore you to death. It is slower and more tedious than Marcella, and there is no point to it when you are done with it.... If you want to read Mrs. Ward, take up David Grieve [1892] again.... The childhood of David and his sister is done with a strong comprehensive touch that recalls George Eliot's matchless treatment of little Tom and Maggie Tulliver."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 5/1897


  66. "The Slave in the Dismal Swamp"

  67. Author: Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth
    Title: "The Slave in the Dismal Swamp"
    Date: 1842
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Double Birthday," Albert Engelhardt feels like "the Slave in the Dismal Swamp."
    Note Source: Uncle Valentine and Other Stories 53


  68. "The Snow Queen"

  69. Author: Andersen, Hans Christian
    Title: "The Snow Queen"
    Date: 1844
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Thea's favorite fairy tale; its closing words are "And it was Summer, beautiful Summer!"
    Note Source: Song of the Lark Part I, Chap. 4


  70. A Social Highwayman

  71. Author: Stone, Mary
    Title: A Social Highwayman
    Date: 1895
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "A play with a thief, even a repentant thief, for a hero is not very promising, but the redeeming moral element which every good play must have, is the dumb, doglike devotion of the valet for his master and as this same valet Mr. E.M. Holland does some noble work. That 'moral element' in plays is a very queer thing; it absolutely has to be there."
    Note Source: Journal 12/6/1896


  72. "Sohrab and Rustum"

  73. Author: Arnold, Matthew
    Title: "Sohrab and Rustum"
    Date: 1853
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Emerson Graves's last class in "The Professor's Commencement" discusses "Sohrab and Rustum."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 288


  74. Soldiers of the Cross: Notes on the Ecclesiastical History of New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado

  75. Author: Salpointe, J.B.
    Title: Soldiers of the Cross: Notes on the Ecclesiastical History of New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado
    Date: 1898
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Source for Death Comes for the Archbishop.
    Note Source: Death Comes for the Archbishop Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay" 349-50


  76. Soldiers Three

  77. Author: Kipling, Rudyard
    Title: Soldiers Three
    Date: 1888
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1894 Journal article, Cather writes: "He has been trying to live a respectable Puritan life in Vermont and be a full-fledged family man.... Go back to the east, Mr. Kipling; we and our world are not for you. Our life is not free enough for you and you are not strong enough for it.... Go back to the land where you wrote 'The Gate of a Hundred Sorrows' and 'Without Benefit of Clergy' and 'On the City Wall'.... Ah, Mr. Kipling, it would be sad and tragical if it were not so laughable that you who wrote 'The Story of the Gadsbys' should be the victim of matrimony. It has shorn the wings of your freedom, and your freedom was your art.... Alas! There were so many men who could have married Mrs. Kipling, and there was only you who could write Soldiers Three." In an 1899 Courier article, Cather writes: "The nucleus of Anglo-Indian society was formed when Clive's troopers marched into the interior, yet no one knew anything about it until the appearance of Soldiers Three and Mine Own People." In an 1899 Courier article, Cather writes: "Had Captains Courageous and The Day's Work been his first productions they would have made, doubtless, a noise in the world, but they would not have done for their author what Plain Tales from the Hills and Soldiers Three did.
    Note Source: Journal 12/23/1894; Courier 4/4/1899; Courier 4/4/1899


  78. "The Solitary Reaper"

  79. Author: Wordsworth, William
    Title: "The Solitary Reaper"
    Date: 1805
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In an editorial item on Anthony Hope's The Prisoner of Zenda, quotes lines 19 and 20 of Wordsworth's "The Solitary Reaper."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 11/1896


  80. Some Verses

  81. Author: Hay, Helen
    Title: Some Verses
    Date: 1898
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: "Miss Hay's verse, at least her sonnets, are by no means ordinary."
    Note Source: Leader 5/27/1899


  82. The Song of Hiawatha

  83. Author: Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth
    Title: The Song of Hiawatha
    Date: 1855
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Claude's mother murmured softly in her quavering voice: "Ever thicker, thicker, thicker,/Froze the ice on lake and river;/Ever deeper, deeper, deeper,/Fell the snow o'er all the landscape"; the lines are from "The Famine."
    Note Source: One of Ours Book I, Chap. 17


  84. Songs from Vagabondia

  85. Author: Carman, Bliss
    Title: Songs from Vagabondia
    Date: 1894
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In a 1902 Gazette article, Cather writes: "But the days when Mr. Carman gave us Songs from Vagabondia are past, and his later work, though sometimes baffling, is usually sincere and often noble." In a 1896 Journal article, Cather considers Caman's poetry to have improved as he matured: On Songs from Vagabondia by Bliss Carman and Richard Hovey: "While the lyrics therein could scarcely be called evidences of genius, they were so fresh, so untrammeled, so free from any flavor of imitation, that they proved conclusively that up in Canada two young men were finding out nature for themselves."
    Note Source: Gazette 11/30/1902; Journal 4/26/1896


  86. Author: Hovey, Richard
    Title: Songs from Vagabondia
    Date: 1894, 1895
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: On Songs from Vagabondia by Bliss Carman and Richard Hovey, Cather says: "While the lyrics therein could scarcely be called evidences of genius, they were so fresh, so untrammeled, so free from any flavor of imitation, that they proved conclusively that up in Canada two young men were finding out nature for themselves."
    Note Source: Journal 4/26/1896


  87. Sonnet 68

  88. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: Sonnet 68
    Date: 1609
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather writes that actor Nat Goodwin "has said a long and sad farewell to forty, and his 'cheek is but the map of days outworn' at that"; the first line of "Sonnet 68" reads "Thus is his cheek the map of days outworn."
    Note Source: Courier 1/21/1899


  89. Sonnet 94

  90. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: Sonnet 94
    Date: 1609
    Genre:  poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In A Lost Lady, when Niel discovers Mrs. Forrester's affair with Frank Ellinger, he "mutter[s], 'Lilies that fester smell far worse than weeds.'" The full final couplet of Sonnet 94 reads: "For sweetest things turn sourest by their deeds;/Lilies that fester smell far worse than weeds" (Scholarly Edition, note 82). In "Eric Hermannson's Soul," Margaret Elliot's fiance begins a letter to her with an allusion from Sonnet 97: "How like a winter hath thine absence been," changing the first person "my" to "thine," for his purposes.
    Note Source: A Lost Lady Part I, Chap. 7; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 373


  91. Sonnets from the Portuguese

  92. Author: Browning, Elizabeth Barrett
    Title: Sonnets from the Portuguese
    Date: 1850
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: "In the last generation Elizabeth Barrett Browning tried to be versatile and to go beyond the artistic limitations of her sex, but she made the same respectable blunder that Mrs. Humphry Ward has made in this. She attempted all sorts of poetry and achieved merit without greatness... Mrs. Browning never wrote but one great poem, her little volume of Sonnets from the Portuguese that she wrote to Mr. Browning when she loved him first."
    Note Source: Journal 1/13/1895


  93. Sons of the Morning

  94. Author: Phillpotts, Eden
    Title: Sons of the Morning
    Date: 1900
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather calls Sons of the Morning "a remarkable new book."
    Note Source: Courier 8/10/1901


  95. Sordello

  96. Author: Browning, Robert
    Title: Sordello
    Date: 1840
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In a 1894 Journal piece on ladies' literary clubs, Cather writes: "Of all the ladies' clubs the Sordello clubs are undoubtedly the funniest. Sordello doesn't seem to mix well with tea and muffins, though perhaps he had too many of them when he was hanging around Verona after his debut and that was what was the matter with him... 'Sleep and forget, Sordello.'" In an 1897 Courier piece, Cather quotes "up-thrust, out-staggering on the world," from Book I, in a description of Tchaikovsky's 1812 Overture. In an 1897 Journal article, Cather writes: "Compare Kipling's best verses with the first book of Hyperion, or with the best parts of Sordello, and he becomes mere opera bouffe, vaudeville."
    Note Source: Journal 10/28/1894; Courier 11/27/1897; Journal 5/16/1897


  97. The Spanish Student

  98. Author: Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth
    Title: The Spanish Student
    Date: 1843
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Alexandra Bergson "was fond of Longfellow's verse, -- the ballads and the 'Golden Legend' and 'The Spanish Student.'" Based on Cervantes's La Gitanilla, The Spanish Student is about a Spanish student's love for a gypsy girl.
    Note Source: O Pioneers! Part I, Chap. 4


  99. "Spinn, Spinn, Meine Liebe Tochter"

  100. Title: "Spinn, Spinn, Meine Liebe Tochter"
    Date: n.d.
    Genre: song
    Note Relating to Cather: Claude Wheeler "loved to hear her [Mrs. Erlich] sing sentimental Germa songs as she worked: 'Spinn,Spinn, Meine Liebe Tochter.'"
    Note Source: One of Ours Book I, Chap. 6


  101. Spokesmen: Modern Writers and American Life

  102. Author: Whipple, R.K.
    Title: Spokesmen: Modern Writers and American Life
    Date: 1928
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather enjoyed Whipple's essays on her and on Henry Adams.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #944


  103. Spoon River Anthology

  104. Author: Masters, Edgar Lee
    Title: Spoon River Anthology
    Date: 1915
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather finds Spoon River Anthology too "harsh" and dislikes syntax.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #466


  105. Sporting Life

  106. Title: Sporting Life
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: The guardian of Hugh Treffingr's studio in "The Marriage of Phaedra" likes to read the daily sports paper.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 220


  107. St. Elmo

  108. Author: Evans, Augusta J.
    Title: St. Elmo
    Date: 1866
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In A Lost Lady, Niel's Cousin Sadie "liked to sit down after breakfast and read murder trials, or peruse a well-worn copy of 'St. Elmo.'"
    Note Source: A Lost Lady Part I, Chap. 2


  109. St. Joseph Gazette

  110. Title: St. Joseph Gazette
    Date: 1845-
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In Lucy Gayheart, Pauline Gayheart sends Lucy a clipping from the St. Joseph Gazette about the marriage of Harry Gordon and Harriet Arkwright. An historical newspaper, it has had a complex history.
    Note Source: Lucy Gayheart Book I, Chap. 19


  111. Starvation on Red River

  112. Author: Akins, Zoe
    Title: Starvation on Red River
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather does not care for it.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1474


  113. "The Statue and the Bust"

  114. Author: Browning, Robert
    Title: "The Statue and the Bust"
    Date: 1855
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather quotes Browning in a review of Hamlet: "The 'unlit lamp and the ungirt loin' is not the end. 'Other heights in other lives, God willing'"; quotations are from "The Statue and the Bust," stanza 83, and "One Word More," the poetic epilogue to Men and Women, stanza 12.
    Note Source: Courier 11/23/1895


  115. The Stones of Venice

  116. Author: Ruskin, John
    Title: The Stones of Venice
    Date: 1851, 1853
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather:  "His death will probably call public attention to him, and we will glance again through the enchanted pages of The Stones of Venice and wonder at their melody"; Cather also quotes Modern Painters and Sesame and Lilies, Lecture I ("Of Kings' Treasuries").
    Note Source: Journal 5/17/1896


  117. The Story of the Gadsbys

  118. Author: Kipling, Rudyard
    Title: The Story of the Gadsbys
    Date: 1888
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1894 Journal article Cather writes: "He has been trying to live a respectable Puritan life in Vermont and be a full-fledged family man.... Go back to the east, Mr. Kipling; we and our world are not for you. Our life is not free enough for you and you are not strong enough for it.... Go back to the land where you wrote 'The Gate of a Hundred Sorrows' and 'Without Benefit of Clergy' and 'On the City Wall'.... Ah, Mr. Kipling, it would be sad and tragical if it were not so laughable that you who wrote 'The Story of the Gadsbys' should be the victim of matrimony. It has shorn the wings of your freedom, and your freedom was your art.... Alas! There were so many men who could have married Mrs. Kipling, and there was only you who could write Soldiers Three." In an 1899 Courier article Cather writes: "[Kipling] is dangerously clever and has a taste for farce, and these two propensities lead him into many a tour de force unworthy of his high talent. Admitting that the Mrs. Hauksbee stories were cheap in their knowingness; that The Story of the Gadsbys was an atrocious precocity in a youth of twenty, they were better worth doing than Tom Brown schoolboy stories, or the conversation of horses in a Vermont pasture."
    Note Source: Journal 12/23/1894; Courier 4/4/1899


  119. The Story of Two Noble Lives

  120. Author: Hare, Augustus John
    Title: The Story of Two Noble Lives
    Date: 1893
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather mentions Hare, although misremembers his exact name.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1793


  121. Strathmore, or, Wrought by His Own Hand: A Life Romance

  122. Author: Ouida (Marie Louise de la Ramee)
    Title: Strathmore, or, Wrought by His Own Hand: A Life Romance
    Date: 1865
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Considered by many as Ouida's best novel. In the epilogue to The Song of the Lark: "A foolish young girl, Tillie lived in the splendid sorrows of 'Wanda' and 'Strathmore'; a foolish old girl, she lives in her niece's triumphs."
    Note Source: Song of the Lark Epilogue


  123. "Style"

  124. Author: Pater, Walter
    Title: "Style"
    Date: 1889
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Jack-a-Boy," the professor paraphrases Pater, according to March (569-70), probably the last sentence of "Style" when he says, "It is the revelation of beauty which is to be our redemption."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 322


  125. "The Substitute"

  126. Author: Coppee, Francois
    Title: "The Substitute"
    Date: 1890
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "One of the most musical of poets, the most delightful of story tellers"; "M. Coppee is best known in this country by his short stories, 'The Substitute,' 'Two Clowns,' 'The Captain's Vices' [in Ten Tales] and his perfect little romance, 'The Rivals.'"
    Note Source: Journal 2/17/1895


  127. Summer in Arcady

  128. Author: Allen, James Lane
    Title: Summer in Arcady
    Date: 1896
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather reviewed the serial version ("Butterflies")
    Note Source: NSJ column


  129. Sunday World

  130. Title: Sunday World
    Date: 1880s--
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Paul's Case," as Paul stands outside the Schenly Hotel, he imagines himself attending elaborate dinner parties, such as those he has seen in the Sunday World supplement.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 247


  131. Sunken Bell

  132. Author: Hauptmann, Gerhart
    Title: Sunken Bell
    Date: 1899
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather borrowed one of her Library pseudonyms, Henry Nicklemann, from a folklore figure in Hauptmann's text.
    Note Source: World and the Parish 2:754


  133. Swedish Bible

  134. Title: Swedish Bible
    Note Relating to Cather: Begun in 1303 by Cannon Mattias, the complete Swedish Bible of 1540-1541 became the church Bible of Sweden until 1917. This would be the one Alexandra Bergson has in O Pioneers! (See March 742).
    Note Source: O Pioneers! Part I, Chap. 4


  135. Swiss Family Robinson

  136. Author: Wyss, Johann David
    Title: Swiss Family Robinson
    Date: 1813
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Prodigies," Nelson Mackenzie tells the Massey children that his children enjoy The Swiss Family Robinson. Both Alexandra Bergson and Jim Burden read this book aloud to their families; Jim "felt that the Swiss family had no advantages over us in the way of an adventurous life." "The story was much loved by all the Cather children" (My Antonia Scholarly Edition, note 73). In an 1897 Home Monthly article Cather writes: "If I were asked what two books were the most essential to a child's library and most important in his education, I should name two very old-fashioned ones that their fathers and mothers read and loved before them: Pilgrim's Progress and The Swiss Family Robinson."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 419; O Pioneers! Part I, Chap. 4; My Antonia Book I, Chap. 9; Home Monthly 1/1897


  137. The Sword in the Stone

  138. Author: White, Theodore H.
    Title: The Sword in the Stone
    Date: 1939
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather recommends The Sword in the Stone.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1445


    A Tale of Two Cities

  1. Author: Dickens, Charles
    Title: A Tale of Two Cities
    Date: 1859
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Stands out in fiction as a thing quite by itself, and it holds quite as unique a place among Dickens' books as it does in general literature."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 9/1897


  2. Tales

  3. Author: Craigie, Pearl Mary Teresa
    Title: Tales
    Date: 1892
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Mrs. Craigie is, on the whole, much more satisfactory in short stories, like these, than in tedious political novels like School for Saints."
    Note Source: Leader 3/11/1898


  4. "A Talisman"

  5. Author: Guiney, Louise Imogen
    Title: "A Talisman"
    Date: 1893
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather says the temper of "A Talisman" is "strikingly the temper of nearly all our best contemporary verse."
    Note Source: Gazette 11/30/1902


  6. Talking Leaves

  7. Author: Stoddard, William Osborn
    Title: Talking Leaves
    Date: 1882
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather asks Sister Agatha if she has ever read Talking Leaves, published by Harper, the publisher also of Toby Tyler.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1565


  8. "Tam o' Shanter"

  9. Author: Burns, Robert
    Title: "Tam o' Shanter"
    Date: 1790
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Dr. Archie "loved the poetry of Robert Burns," and "used to read 'Tam o'Shanter' to Thea Kronborg."
    Note Source: Song of the Lark Part I, Chap. 12


  10. Tao-Te Ching

  11. Author: Lao-tse
    Title: Tao-Te Ching
    Date: c. 500 BCE
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: March argues that the Tao proverb "Have you seen your god, brother, or have I seen mine? Then why should there be any controversy between us, seeing that we are both unfortunates?" lies at the heart of the story "The Conversion of Sum Loo."
    Note Source: March 747; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912


  12. Tarbell's tariff articles appeared in American Magazinefrom 1906-1911; in book form in 1911.

  13. Author: Tarbell, Ida
    Title: Tarbell's tariff articles appeared in American Magazinefrom 1906-1911; in book form in 1911.
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather tells Tarbell that her tariff articles in American Magazine are "important magazine writing."
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #124


  14. Teachers' Quarterly

  15. Title: Teachers' Quarterly
    Date: 1874-1938
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: John March (749) concludes that the particular magazine that Douglass Burnham's Sunday School teacher ("The Treasure of Far Island") read was the Sunday School Teacher's Quarterly. Such Sunday School "papers" (for teachers and pupils) were popular in the late 19th century and the first half or more of the 20th century. Most were based on the International Sunday School Lessons, which were used throughout the country in many Protestant churches.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 270


  16. A Temperance Town

  17. Author: Hoyt, Charles
    Title: A Temperance Town
    Date: 1893
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather reviewed A Temperance Town for Nebraska State Journal in 1895.
    Note Source: Journal 2/7/1895


  18. The Tempest

  19. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: The Tempest
    Date: 1623
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Treasure of Far Island," when they reach the shore of the island Douglass Burnham exclaims: "Descend, O Miranda, upon your island!" The epigraph to Cather's Home Monthly column on Daudet's Kings in Exile is from The Tempest, Act I scene ii: "My library was dukedom large enough." According to an 1894 Journal article, in an essay on Emile Zola, Cather writes that he "crouches like Caliban upon his island, and the music of Ariel is to him only a noise which frightens and disturbs."
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 278; Home Monthly 3/1897; Journal 12/13/1894


  20. Terminations

  21. Author: James, Henry
    Title: Terminations
    Date: 1895
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Now that Stevenson is dead I can think of but one English-speaking author who is really keeping his self-respect and sticking for perfection. Of course I refer to that mighty master of language and keen student of human actions and motives, Henry James. In the last four years he has published, I believe, just two small volumes, The Lesson of the Master and Terminations, and in those two little volumes of short stories he who will may find out something of what it means to be really an artist."
    Note Source: Courier 11/16/1895


  22. Tess of the d'Urbervilles

  23. Author: Hardy, Thomas
    Title: Tess of the d'Urbervilles
    Date: 1891
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1894 Journal article, Cather writes: "It is certainly inconsistent that today, when Balzac and Tess of the d'Urbervilles is in all the public libraries, there should be objections to Trilby's appearance in Harper's Magazine." In an 1895 Courier article, Cather writes: "I admire Thomas Hardy; I admire the lofty conception of Tess of the d'Urbervilles, the finished execution of A Pair of Blue Eyes, the beautiful simplicity of Far from the Madding Crowd. But for Hearts Insurgent I have no forgiveness."
    Note Source: Journal 12/23/1894; Courier 10/5/1895


  24. The Texas Nightingale

  25. Author: Akins, Zoe
    Title: The Texas Nightingale
    Date: 1922
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In a letter, Cather writes that she saw the opening in Boston. In a letter,Cather praised the play, production, and lead actress.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #646; A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #647


  26. A Text-Book of Human Physiology: Designed for the Use of Practitioners and Students of Medicine

  27. Author: Flint, Austin
    Title: A Text-Book of Human Physiology: Designed for the Use of Practitioners and Students of Medicine
    Date: 1888
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Dr. Archie has pasted a poem by Oliver Wendell Holmes into Flint's Physiology, a popular medical text.
    Note Source: Song of the Lark Part I Chap. 12


  28. Thais

  29. Author: France, Anatole
    Title: Thais
    Date: 1906
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In a letter, Cather recommends Thais to Irene Miner Weisz. In a "Historical Essay," it was written: "In her journalistic days she had highly recommended to her readers [Anatole] France's The Crime of Sylvester Bonnard and lauded his election to the French Academy. She also had praised his novel Thais, and her Pittsburgh friend George Seibel remembered that they had read together France's Le Lys Rouge (The Red Lily)."
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #822; The Professor's House Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay" 321


  30. "Thanatopsis"

  31. Author: Bryant, William Cullen
    Title: "Thanatopsis"
    Date: 1817
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Song of the Lark, "Thanatopsis" is one of the pieces of literature that Thea Kronborg has to diagram.
    Note Source:  The Song of the LarkBook I, Chap. 14


  32. That Lass o' Lowrie's

  33. Author: Burnett, Frances Hodgson
    Title: That Lass o' Lowrie's
    Date: 1877
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: mentioned in column
    Note Source: Courier


  34. Thirty Years of Paris and of My Literary Life

  35. Author: Daudet, Alphonse
    Title: Thirty Years of Paris and of My Literary Life
    Date: 1887
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an essay on various stage adaptations of Scenes de la vie de Boheme (1848) by Henri Murger, Cather describes a story based on "The End of a Mountebank and of Murger's Bohemia," in Alphonse Daudet's Thirty Years of Paris. In a Courier piece after Daudet's death, Cather retells an anecdote of a disconcerting experience revealed in Thirty Years of Paris and of My Literary Life.
    Note Source: Journal 4/5/1896; Courier 1/22/1898


  36. "The Three Holy Kings"

  37. Author: Heine, Heinrich
    Title: "The Three Holy Kings"
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather translated Heine's "The Three Holy Kings" for the Home Monthly.
    Note Source: World and the Parish 1:307


  38. Three Soldiers

  39. Author: Dos Passos, John
    Title: Three Soldiers
    Date: 1921
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather hopes that One of Ours will be considered "more true" than Three Soldiers.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #595


  40. "Three years she grew"

  41. Author: Wordsworth, William
    Title: "Three years she grew"
    Date: 1800
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Song of the Lark VI, when Thea Kronborg sings the role of Sieglind, "The music born of murmuring sound passed into her face, as the old poet said." The old poet is Wordsworth: "And beauty born of murmuring sound/Shall pass into her face" (lines 29-30).
    Note Source: Song of the Lark Part VI, Chap. 11


  42. Through the Looking Glass and What Alice Found There

  43. Author: Carroll, Lewis
    Title: Through the Looking Glass and What Alice Found There
    Date: 1871
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Prodigies," Elsie Mackenzie cries when Carroll's Through the Looking Glass cannot be found and her nurse cannot recite "The Walrus and the Carpenter." In a 1897 Home Monthly article, Cather writes: "If there is somewhere a boy or girl who has reached the age of twelve without having read Alice's Adventures in Wonderland or her experiences Through the Looking-Glass, I profoundly pity that same child." In a 1897 Courier Cather quotes a fragment from "The Walrus and the Carpenter" in a piece on the Pittsburgh art scene; she accurately remarks that the lines are "not quoted correctly, and I know someone in Lincoln who will catch me up on it, but never mind...." In "Flavia and her Artists," Arthur Hamilton has created a musical setting for Carroll's poem "Jabberwocky." In the same story, Will Maidenwood's and Frank Wellington's discussions about Wellington's works are compared to the endless wrangling between the lion and the unicorn. Other references to Through the Looking Glass and What Alice Found There can be found throughout the story.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 411; Home Monthly 10/1897; Courier 10/30/1897; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 167; 158


  44. The Time of Man

  45. Author: Roberts, Elizabeth Madox
    Title: The Time of Man
    Date: 1926
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Although she is sending The Time of Man to Mary Austin, Cather herself finds it uninteresting.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #874


  46. Toby Tyler

  47. Author: Otis, James
    Title: Toby Tyler
    Date: 1881
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather's grandmother had read Toby Tyler to her and her brothers when they were young.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1565


  48. To Have and to Hold

  49. Author: Johnston, Mary
    Title: To Have and to Hold
    Date: 1900
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "At last an historical novel worth having and holding."
    Note Source: Courier 3/24/1900


  50. "To Helen"

  51. Author: Poe, Edgar Allan
    Title: "To Helen"
    Date: 1831
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: "Mr. Aldrich's 'Memory,' a little masterpiece of ten lines, Emerson's 'April,' Poe's 'To Helen,' and Sidney Lanier's 'Into the Wood[s] My Master Went' will outlast many of the more ambitious efforts of our earlier poets."
    Note Source: Gazette 11/30/1902


  52. "To James Whitcomb Riley"

  53. Author: Kipling, Rudyard
    Title: "To James Whitcomb Riley"
    Date: 1890
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather used Kipling's poem as an epigraph for her Home Monthly column.
    Note Source: Home Monthly 12/1897


  54. Tom Jones, a Foundling

  55. Author: Fielding, Henry
    Title: Tom Jones, a Foundling
    Date: 1749
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In her review of Phillpotts's Sons of the Morning, Cather says, "The combat between the two sisters, Margery and Sally Cramphorn, in its rich humor and lusty spirit recalls the famous battle in Tom Jones in which Mollie, the forester's daughter, lost her new gown and most of her reputation." In A Lost Lady, Niel Herbert reads Tom Jones when he is supposed to be reading law.
    Note Source: Courier 8/10/1901; A Lost Lady Part I, Chap. 7


  56. Too Much Johnson

  57. Author: Gillette, William
    Title: Too Much Johnson
    Date: 1894
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Reviewed Too Much Johnson, starring and written by William Gillette; called it a comedy "with a stick in it."
    Note Source: Journal 10/2/1895


  58. "To P.V."

  59. Author: Carman, Bliss
    Title: "To P.V."
    Date: 1898
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather considers ""The verses on the death of Paul Verlaine [as having] a wider significance than that of a mere personal appreciation." The poem appeared as "To P.V." in Carman's By the Aurelian Wall, and was reprinted as "To Paul Verlaine" in his 1923 collection Ballads and Lyrics.
    Note Source: Gazette 11/30/1902


  60. "To the Virgins, To Make Much of Time"

  61. Author: Herrick, Robert
    Title: "To the Virgins, To Make Much of Time"
    Date: 1648
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In Lucy Gayheart, Mrs. Ramsay advises Lucy to gather all the roses she can during her lifetime. Herrick's poetry was very likely to be known to Cather. March (298) points out, however, that similar sentiments can be found in the Wisdom of Solomon 2:8 and in Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene.
    Note Source: Lucy Gayheart Book II, Chap. 3


  62. "To Thomas Moore"

  63. Author: Byron, George Gordon
    Title: "To Thomas Moore"
    Date: 1817
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Quotes "To Thomas Moore" in a piece on Moore's "Lalla Rookh."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 6/1897


  64. Tovarich

  65. Author: Deval, Jacques
    Title: Tovarich
    Date: 1936
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Enjoyed Deval's Tovarich "very much."
    Note Source:  A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1359


  66. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark

  67. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark
    Date: 1603
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In My Mortal Enemy Cather writes: "There was a great deal of talk about Sarah Bernhardt's Hamlet. In "Two Friends," J.H. Trueman prefers Hamlet to Richard II. In the epigraph of A Lost Lady Cather writes: "Come, my coach! Good night, ladies, good night, sweet ladies,/Good night, good night"--associates Ophelia with Marian Forrester (Hamlet IV. 5.72-74) In "Jack-a-boy," the narrator says that Jack died at "that hour so common for the passage of souls, when 'the glowworm shows the matin to be near'" (Hamlet I.5.89). In "The Count of Crow's Nest," Buchanan wonders what occurs behind the scenes of the world stage and "how often Hamlet and the grave digger ought to change places." In One of Ours, Evangeline Wheeler sometimes whispers to Claude in her mind when she wakens at night thinking about him: "Rest, rest, perturbed spirit" (Hamlet I.5.182). In The Song of the Lark, Thea Kronborg diagrams "Hamlet's soliloquy." There are five soliloquies, the most famous of which begins, "To be, or not to be" (III.1.5-88). In "The Count of Crow's Nest," the people in the boarding house thought "that the time was out of joint" for them. Hamlet laments: "The time is out of joint--O cursed spite,/That ever I was born to set it right!" (I:5.188-89)
    Note Source: My Mortal Enemy Part I, Chap. 5; Obscure Destinies 180; A Lost Lady epigraph; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 319; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 464; One of Ours Book I, Chap. 12; Song of the Lark Part I, Chap. 14; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 450


  68. The Tragedy of Macbeth

  69. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: The Tragedy of Macbeth
    Date: 1623
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather recalls her attempts to apply mathematical formulae to an analysis of the text of the play as per her training by L. A. Sherman at the University of Nebraska. In "Flavia and Her Artists," when the guests leave Flavia's house, Jemima Broadwood refers to them as "the great doom's image" (II:3, 78). Broadwood also compares Arthur Hamilton's fate to that of Macbeth when she says: "Why he has sacrificed himself to spare the very vanity that devours him, put rancours in the vessels of his peace, and his eternal jewel given to the common enemy of man, to make them kings, the seed of Banquo kings!" (Macbeth III.1. 65-69 In The Professor's House, Godfrey St. Peter's "desire to do [his "great work"] and the difficulties attending such a project strove together in his mind like Macbeth's two spent swimmers." The reference is to Macbeth I.ii. 8-9: "As two spent swimmers, that do cling together/And choke their art." In Lucy Gayheart, Clement Sebastian "remembered Macbeth's Oh, full of scorpions is my mind, dear wife!" when he hears of Larry MacGowan's death (Macbeth III.2.36). In writing to her Aunt Franc upon learning of G.P. Cather's death, Cather "remembered the last act of Macbeth and the line of Old Siward, who upon learning that his son had died nobly in battle, exclaims, 'Why then, God's soldier be he!'" (Macbeth V.8.55).
    Note Source: Library 6/23/1900; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 171; The Professor's House Book I, Chap. 1; Lucy Gayheart Book I, Chap. 11; One of Ours "Historical Essay" Scholarly Edition 629


  70. The Tragical Historie of Mary Queen of Scots

  71. Author: Bacon, Francis
    Title: The Tragical Historie of Mary Queen of Scots
    Date: 1894
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In comments on the theory that "Lord Bacon was the author of the Elizabethan Age," Cather quotes a long passage from Bacon's The Tragical Historie of Mary Queen of Scots to illustrate its deficiencies.
    Note Source: Journal 11/4/1894


  72. Tragic Muse

  73. Author: James, Henry
    Title: Tragic Muse
    Date: 1890
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Henry James' Tragic Muse is the only theatrical novel that has a particle of the real spirit of the stage in it."
    Note Source: Journal 3/29/1896


  74. Treasure Island

  75. Author: Stevenson, Robert Louis
    Title: Treasure Island
    Date: 1883
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1897 Home Monthly article, Cather writes: "I received a few days ago a letter from one of our readers asking what book I would most highly recommend for a boy of fourteen. Of course, there is no 'best' boy's book, but I replied without hesitation Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island." In a 1901 Courier article, Cather writes: "While young men were scurrying about the world in search of material and adventure, the best of adventure stories came from the sick bed with blood-stained linen where Stevenson wrote Treasure Island and The Master of Ballantrae."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 2/1897; Courier 8/17/1901


  76. Trelawney of the Wells

  77. Author: Pinero, Arthur Wing
    Title: Trelawney of the Wells
    Date: 1898
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "The play is the least garish, the most dignified and untheatric that I have seen in many a long day, and it has a literary flavor rare enough in these degenerate times."
    Note Source: Courier 12/23/1899


  78. Trilby

  79. Author: Du Maurier, George
    Title: Trilby
    Date: 1894
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1894 Journal article, Cather writes: "It is certainly inconsistent that today, when Balzac and Tess of the d'Urbervilles is in all the public libraries, there should be objections to Trilby's appearance in Harper's Magazine. It is doubly inconsistent that people who can read unflinchingly Sarah Grand and Iota, with their cheap, vulgar, ignorant discussions of questions that should not be touched outside of a medical clinic, should shudder at the clean, dainty pages of Du Maurier's latest novel." In an 1895 Journal article, Cather discusses Paul Potter's successful dramatization of Trilby. In a Home Monthly piece on the death of George du Maurier, Cather discusses Trilby and mentions Peter Ibbetson.
    Note Source: Journal 12/23/1894; Journal 4/7/1895; Home Monthly 11/1896


  80. A Trip to Chinatown

  81. Author: Hoyt, Charles
    Title: A Trip to Chinatown
    Date: 1892
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather reviewed A Trip to Chinatown for Nebraska State Journal in 1894.
    Note Source: Journal 1/20/1894, 11/1/1894


  82. Tristan and Isolde

  83. Title: Tristan and Isolde
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Professor's Commencement," Emerson Graves reads aloud from Tristram and Isolde; however, the reader does not know what version he is reading because, as John March points out, "Interestingly, Willa Cather uses Matthew Arnold's spelling (Tristram) in combination with Wagner's (Isolde). (775)
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 284


  84. "Tristram and Isolde"

  85. Author: Arnold, Matthew
    Title: "Tristram and Isolde"
    Date: 1853
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Professor's Commencement," Emerson Graves loves the lines that tell of Tristram's death.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 284


  86. The Triumph of Death

  87. Author: D'Annunzio, Gabriele
    Title: The Triumph of Death
    Date: 1894
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather says The Triumph of Death has "grewsome charm."
    Note Source: Courier 8/24/1901


  88. Troilus and Cressida

  89. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: Troilus and Cressida
    Date: 1609
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912, the only one of Flavia's earlier artists who still frequented her home was Alcee Buisson who had continued to have a name among artists. "Ambition hath a knapsack at his back, wherein he puts alms to oblivion." In Troilus and Cressida, Ulysses says, "Time hath, my lord, a wallet at his back/ Wherein he puts alms for oblivion,/ A great-sized monster of ingratitudes" III:3,ll.145-147. In an 1895 Journal article, Cather writes: "Not only is it true that married nightingales seldom sing, but this nightingale [Helena von Doehnoff] will even retire from the stage. She will not return to it again. She may wish to, but there are other contraltos in the world, and as Mr. Shakespeare informs us, 'Time hath a wallet at his back wherein he puts alms for oblivion'" (Troilus and Cressida III.iii).
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912; Journal 1/27/1895


  90. Trois Contes

  91. Author: Flaubert, Gustave
    Title: Trois Contes
    Date: 1877
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather and Madame Franklin Grout speak particularly of the last sentence of Herodias.
    Note Source: Not Under Forty 22


  92. The Truth About Tristem Varick

  93. Author: Saltus, Edgar
    Title: The Truth About Tristem Varick
    Date: 1888
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Mr. Edgar Saltus has written a new novel entitled When Dreams Come True. It is rather better than Mr. Saltus' recent work. Certainly it is better than Enthralled [1894], or Madame Sapphira [1895]. It is more pleasant than the police fiction of the former and its aim is a more manly one than getting even with his divorced wife to which he devoted the latter. It is a quiet sort of book without any thrilling episodes, but it has in it the old vigor of style and vivid, unusual use of words which characterized Mr. Saltus in the earlier days when he wrote [The Truth About] Tristem Varick [1888]. It is full of phrases that seem to melt in your mouth as you utter them. Indeed, as usual, one feels much nearer to Mr. Saltus' phrases than his people, and his words seem more alive than his women...."
    Note Source: Journal 7/14/1895


  94. Twelfth Night

  95. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: Twelfth Night
    Date: 1623
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In Lucy Gayheart, when Clement Sebastian pulls out a volume for Lucy to read, she does not tell him that she already has and "thought it a rather foolish comedy . . . ." The volume must be Twelfth Night, for Sebastian has just sung "But let concealment, like a worm i' the bud, feed on her damask cheek." (Twelfth Night II.5.113-4.
    Note Source: Lucy Gayheart Book I, Chap. 13


  96. "Two Clowns"

  97. Author: Coppee, Francois
    Title: "Two Clowns"
    Date: 1890
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "One of the most musical of poets, the most delightful of story tellers"; "M. Coppee is best known in this country by his short stories, 'The Substitute,' 'Two Clowns,' 'The Captain's Vices' [in Ten Tales] and his perfect little romance, 'The Rivals.'"
    Note Source: Journal 2/17/1895


  98. The Two Friends, and Other Stories

  99. Author: Turgenev, Ivan
    Title: The Two Friends, and Other Stories
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather told Canfield Fisher that her favorite among newly translated stories was "A Quiet Backwater" by Turgenev. [probably Constance Garnett's translation of The Two Friends, and Other Stories.]
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #574; A Lost Lady Scholarly Edition, "Historical Essay" 228


  100. "Two Friends: Yeats and A.E." (George Russell)

  101. Author: O'Connor, Frank
    Title: "Two Friends: Yeats and A.E." (George Russell)
    Date: 1939
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Article appears in Yale Review Fall 1939 pp. 60-88. Cather appreciates Russell's remarks on the poetry of T.S. Eliot and Stephen Spender.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1457


  102. The Two Standards

  103. Author: Barry, Father William F.
    Title: The Two Standards
    Date: 1899
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Though the novel deals with present problems and conditions, it is an old-fashioned novel, written in the old-fashioned manner."
    Note Source: Leader 3/10/1899


  104. Two Women and a Fool

  105. Author: Chatfield-Taylor, Hobart
    Title: Two Women and a Fool
    Date: 1895
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "The latest production of the new house is [Hobart] Chatfield-Taylor's Two Women and a Fool. The title is excellent; his wife must have suggested it. That and the binding and the illustrations are the only good things about the book."
    Note Source: Journal 5/26/1895


    "Ulysses"

  1. Author: Tennyson, Alfred, Lord
    Title: "Ulysses"
    Date: 1842
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1897 Courier article, Cather transcribes the lines quoted by explorer Fridtjof Nansen in a Pittsburgh address: "One equal temper of heroic hearts,/Made weak by time and fate, but strong in will/To strive, to seek, to find and not to yield." In "The Professor's Commencement," Emerson Graves wonders how many of his students who promised "to follow knowledge like a sinking star beyond the utmost bound of human thought" actually did so.
    Note Source: Courier 12/18/1897; Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 287


  2. Un amour de Swann

  3. Author: Proust, Marcel
    Title: Un amour de Swann
    Date: 1913
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "148 Charles Street," her essay about Annie Fields, Cather writes: "Marcel Proust somewhere said that when he came to die he would take all his great men with him: since his Beethoven and his Wagner could never be at all the same to anyone else, they would go with him like the captives who were slain at the funeral pyres of Eastern potentates. It was thus Mrs. Fields died, in that house of memories, with the material keepsakes of the past about her."
    Note Source: Not Under Forty 75


  4. Uncle Remus: His Songs and His Sayings

  5. Author: Harris, Joel Chandler
    Title: Uncle Remus: His Songs and His Sayings
    Date: 1881
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "A Death in the Desert," a salesman tells Everett Hilgarde that he was "born and bred in de brier patch, like Br'er Rabbit." In "Old Mrs. Harris," Hillary Templeton tells his family Uncle Remus stories to cheer them.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 200; Obscure Destinies 134


  6. Uncle Tom's Cabin

  7. Author: Stowe, Harriet Beecher
    Title: Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Date: 1852
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather describes the traveling troupes performing the stage adaptation of this text as "the very poorest of all."
    Note Source: World-Herald 10/27/1929


  8. Un Crime d'amour

  9. Author: Bourget, M. Paul
    Title: Un Crime d'amour
    Date: 1886
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In One of Ours, Dr. Chessup reads Un Crime d'amour on the Anchises.
    Note Source: One of Ours Book IV, Chap. 9


  10. Under the Bridge

  11. Author: Greenslet, Ferris
    Title: Under the Bridge
    Date: 1943
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Agrees with most of what Greenslet says about writers and likes what he says about her.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1645


  12. Under the Gaslight

  13. Author: Daly, Augustin
    Title: Under the Gaslight
    Date: 1867
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "Among the plays of his authorship there were none that will live far into the next century, or that will add much to the commanding authority of his name, but there are several, such as Under the Gaslight and Pique, that were useful pieces in their time and kept inferior plays off the boards."
    Note Source: Courier 7/1/1899


  14. Under the Red Robe

  15. Author: Weyman, Stanley
    Title: Under the Red Robe
    Date: 1894
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather recommends A Gentleman of France, The House of the Wolf, and Under the Red Robe to Home Monthly readers.
    Note Source: Home Monthly 2/1897


  16. Under Two Flags: A Story of the Household and the Desert

  17. Author: Ouida (Marie Louise de la Ramee)
    Title: Under Two Flags: A Story of the Household and the Desert
    Date: 1867
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In an 1895 Courier article Cather writes: "Sometimes I wonder why God ever trusts talent in the hands of women, they usually make such an infernal mess of it. I think He must do it as a sort of ghastly joke. Really, it would be hard to find a better plot than is in that same Under Two Flags, and the book contains the rudiments of a great style, and it also contains some of the most driveling nonsense and mawkish sentimentality and contemptible feminine weakness to be found anywhere." Also mentioned: A Village Commune, Pascarel, Ariadne, Wanda, and Friendship; each has merits, but "I hate to read them." In a 1901 Courier article, Cather writes of the works at the Chicago Art Institute that "there are hundreds of pictures there that the veriest Philistine can admire and, to a great extent, appreciate; people who read Under Two Flags and enjoy comic opera and ice cream soda."
    Note Source: Courier 11/23/1895; Courier 8/10/1901


  18. Underwoods

  19. Author: Stevenson, Robert Louis
    Title: Underwoods
    Date: 1887
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: At a dinner with Will H. Low, to whom poem XI of Underwoods was written: "When a seasonable opportunity came, I quoted a phrase or two of some verses that Stevenson once wrote to Mr. Low."
    Note Source: Courier 10/30/1897


  20. Une Nuit de Cleopatre

  21. Author: Gautier, Theophile
    Title: Une Nuit de Cleopatre
    Date: 1838
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: George Seibel says of his and Cather's translating French works: "We plunged into vats of color like Theophile Gautier's Une Nuit de Cleopatre, and scaled towers of alexandrines in Victor Hugo's Hernani. Verlaine and Baudelaire were among the poets we discovered, Bourget and Huysmans among the novelists."
    Note Source: Willa Cather Remembered 13


  22. The Unquiet Grave

  23. Author: Connelly, Cyril
    Title: The Unquiet Grave
    Date: 1944
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: A "jaded" book that misrepresents Flaubert.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1699


    Vailima Letters

  1. Author: Stevenson, Robert Louis
    Title: Vailima Letters
    Date: 1895
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: On the Vailima Letters of Stevenson to his friend Sidney Colvin: "If you want to read some noble and manly literature, just glance over those letters of his in the November McClure's."
    Note Source: Courier 11/2/1895


  2. Vanity Fair

  3. Author: Thackeray, William Makepeace
    Title: Vanity Fair
    Date: 1847-8
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Recommends Thackeray's Vanity Fair for students.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1306


  4. "Vermont: Our Rich Little Poor State"

  5. Author: Fisher, Dorothy Canfield
    Title: "Vermont: Our Rich Little Poor State"
    Date: 1922
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Pleased to see Fisher's article in the Nation.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #598


  6. The Veteran of 1812; or, Kesiah and the Scout

  7. Author: Woodward, T. Trask
    Title: The Veteran of 1812; or, Kesiah and the Scout
    Date: 1883
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Song of the Lark, Tillie Kronborg has small parts in such plays as The Veteran of 1812; or, Kesiah and the Scout, performed in the Moonstone Opera House.
    Note Source: The Song of the Lark Book I, Chap. 9


  8. Victor Chapman's Letters from France.

  9. Author: Chapman, John Jay, ed.
    Title: Victor Chapman's Letters from France.
    Date: 1917
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Hermione Lee has pointed out that the dashing and reckless young aviator Victor Morse, in book 4, seems to be based on Victor Chapman. . . ." (See Hermione Lee. Willa Cather: Double Lives1989.)
    Note Source: One of Ours "Historical Essay" Scholarly Edition 651


  10. "The Vigil at Arms"

  11. Author: Guiney, Louise Imogen
    Title: "The Vigil at Arms"
    Date: 1893
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather quotes a few lines from the poem and says, "The sentiment calm and submissive to decree as it is, might be Emerson's own."
    Note Source: Gazette 11/30/1902


  12. A Village Commune

  13. Author: Ouida (Marie Louise de la Ramee)
    Title: A Village Commune
    Date: 1881
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In a piece in the Leader Cather writes: "Even the finer chapters of Wanda and A Village Commune, which Mr. Ruskin so much admires, are spoiled by lack of taste, true elegance, verbal precision and restraint, and marred by those debauches of the imagination in which she continually permits herself to indulge." In an 1895 Courier article Cather writes: "Sometimes I wonder why God ever trusts talent in the hands of women, they usually make such an infernal mess of it. I think He must do it as a sort of ghastly joke. Really, it would be hard to find a better plot than is in that same Under Two Flags, and the book contains the rudiments of a great style, and it also contains some of the most driveling nonsense and mawkish sentimentality and contemptible feminine weakness to be found anywhere." Also mentioned: A Village Commune, Pascarel, Ariadne, Wanda, and Friendship; each has merits, but "I hate to read them."
    Note Source: Leader 6/17/1899; Courier 11/23/1895


  14. A Virginia Courtship

  15. Author: Presbrey, Eugene
    Title: A Virginia Courtship
    Date: 1898
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Reviewed William H. Crane in A Virginia Courtship for the Leader. Cather says that A Virginia Courtship "deals with a period when men had time to notice and regard the picturesque element in existence."
    Note Source: Leader 1/11/1898; Leader 1/11/1898


  16. The Virginians

  17. Author: Thackeray, William Makepeace
    Title: The Virginians
    Date: 1857-59
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Called Henry Esmond "the greatest of all English novels" and added that The Virginians is "almost as delightful reading."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 10/1897


  18. Virginius

  19. Author: Knowles, Sheridan
    Title: Virginius
    Date: 1820
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Accoding to an 1893 Journal article, Cather reviewed Robert Downing in Virginius for the Nebraska State Journal. In an 1894 Journal article Cather mentioned in review of Beau Brummell: "Robert Downing deludes people into thinking he can play Virginius because he is fat and oratorical."
    Note Source: Journal 11/30/1893; Journal 4/29/1894


  20. "A Visit from St. Nicholas"

  21. Author: Moore, Clement Clarke
    Title: "A Visit from St. Nicholas"
    Date: 1848
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Strategy of the Were-Wolf Dog," the Were-Wolf Dog lures Santa's reindeer onto thin ice where all drown except Dunder.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 444-6


  22. The Voice of the Valley

  23. Author: Noguchi, Yone
    Title: The Voice of the Valley
    Date: 1898
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: "While Noguchi is by no means a great poet in the large, complicated modern sense of the word, he has more true inspiration, more melody from within than many a greater man.... [These verses] are conspicuously Oriental."
    Note Source: Courier 2/8/1898


    Wallenstein

  1. Author: Schiller, Friedrich
    Title: Wallenstein
    Date: 1800
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Samuel Taylor Coleridge's translation of Wallenstein is in the Rosen's library in "Old Mrs. Harris."
    Note Source: Obscure Destinies 87


  2. Wanda, Countess von Szalrasa

  3. Author: Ouida (Marie Louise de la Ramee)
    Title: Wanda, Countess von Szalrasa
    Date: 1883
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In the epilogue to The Song of the Lark: "A foolish young girl, Tillie lived in the splendid sorrows of 'Wanda' and 'Strathmore'; a foolish old girl, she lives in her niece's triumphs." In an 1899 Leader article Cather writes: "Even the finer chapters of Wanda and A Village Commune, which Mr. Ruskin so much admires, are spoiled by lack of taste, true elegance, verbal precision and restraint, and marred by those debauches of the imagination in which she continually permits herself to indulge." In an 1895 Courier article Cather writes: "Sometimes I wonder why God ever trusts talent in the hands of women, they usually make such an infernal mess of it. I think He must do it as a sort of ghastly joke. Really, it would be hard to find a better plot than is in that same Under Two Flags, and the book contains the rudiments of a great style, and it also contains some of the most driveling nonsense and mawkish sentimentality and contemptible feminine weakness to be found anywhere." Also mentioned: A Village Commune, Pascarel, Ariadne, Wanda, and Friendship; each has merits, but "I hate to read them."
    Note Source: Song of the Lark Epilogue; Leader 6/17/1899; Courier 11/23/1895


  4. The Wandering Jew

  5. Author: Sue, Eugene
    Title: The Wandering Jew
    Date: 1845
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "The story has all the youth of yesterday and will charm generations yet to be."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 12/1897


  6. War and Peace

  7. Author: Tolstoy, Leo
    Title: War and Peace
    Date: 1869
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: The book Cather most wishes that she had written is War and Peace.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1522


  8. War is Kind

  9. Author: Crane, Stephen
    Title: War is Kind
    Date: 1899
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: "There are seldom more than ten lines on a page, and it would be better if most of these lines were not there at all. Either Mr. Crane is insulting the public or insulting himself, or he has developed a case of atavism and is chattering the primeval nonsense of the apes."
    Note Source: Leader 6/3/1899


  10. "Was will die einsame trane?"

  11. Author: Heine, Heinrich
    Title: "Was will die einsame trane?"
    Date: 1827
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In My Mortal Enemy II, Myra Henshawe asks Nellie Birdseye to read to her from Heine, "Du alte, einsame Thrane."
    Note Source: My Mortal Enemy Part II, Chap. 3


  12. Waverley Novels

  13. Author: Scott, Sir Walter
    Title: Waverley Novels
    Date: 1814-1831
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In The Song of the Lark, Dr. Archie "enjoyed the Waverley Novels," Scott's series of 32 historical tales. In "Before Breakfast," Henry Grenfill likes to read something "human--the old fellows: Scott and Dickens and Fielding." The Rosens, in "Old Mrs. Harris," own a set of the Waverley novels in German.
    Note Source: Song of the Lark Part I, Chap. 12; The Old Beauty and Others 147-8; Obscure Destinies 87


  14. Webster County Argus

  15. Title: Webster County Argus
    Date: 1881
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: When Cather was 12, a notice in the Webster County Argus mentions that "the recitation by Miss Willa Cathers [sic] was particularly noticiable on account of its delivery . . . ."
    Note Source: Willa Cather Remembered 146


  16. "Weevily Wheat"

  17. Title: "Weevily Wheat"
    Genre: song
    Note Relating to Cather: The Black Hawk children tease Antonia Shimerda by mimicking this traditional song because she makes a cake for Charley Harling in My Antonia. One version is: "Going to get some weevily wheat/ I'm going to get some barley/ Going to get some weevily wheat/ And bake a cake for Charlie"; however, there are many different versions.
    Note Source: My Antonia Book II, Chap. 4


  18. Westward-Ho!

  19. Author: Kingsley, Charles
    Title: Westward-Ho!
    Date: 1855
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather says Mary Johnston's To Have and To Hold brings to mind this text.
    Note Source: Courier 3/24/1900


  20. We Two

  21. Author: Lyall, Edna
    Title: We Two
    Date: 1884
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "If you want a book for your daughter or sister you can scarcely miss it by giving her one of Miss Lyall's"; she mentions Donovan, A Hardy Norseman, and We Two.
    Note Source: Home Monthly 1/1897


  22. "What is Art?"

  23. Author: Tolstoy, Leo
    Title: "What is Art?"
    Date: 1898
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Art is too terribly human to be very 'great' perhaps. Some very great artists have outgrown art, the men were bigger than the game. Tolstoi did, and Leonardo did." In "A Gold Slipper," Kitty Ayrshire says that she has talked with Tolstoy about his essay "What is Art?" Marshall McKann responds that he thinks Tolstoy is "a crank."
    Note Source: World and the Parish 2:743; Youth and the Bright Medusa 142


  24. What Maisie Knew

  25. Author: James, Henry
    Title: What Maisie Knew
    Date: 1897
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: On young runaway Adelaide Mould, daughter of comic opera star Marion Manola: "It recalled that unpleasant and masterly book of Henry James' about, What Maisie Knew to think what things those big, sad eyes had already seen, and the girl is only seventeen."
    Note Source: Courier 2/19/1898


  26. When Dreams Come True

  27. Author: Saltus, Edgar
    Title: When Dreams Come True
    Date: 1895
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Mr. Edgar Saltus has written a new novel entitled When Dreams Come True. It is rather better than Mr. Saltus' recent work. Certainly it is better than Enthralled [1894], or Madame Sapphira [1895]. It is more pleasant than the police fiction of the former and its aim is a more manly one than getting even with his divorced wife to which he devoted the latter. It is a quiet sort of book without any thrilling episodes, but it has in it the old vigor of style and vivid, unusual use of words which characterized Mr. Saltus in the earlier days when he wrote [The Truth About] Tristem Varick [1888]. It is full of phrases that seem to melt in your mouth as you utter them. Indeed, as usual, one feels much nearer to Mr. Saltus' phrases than his people, and his words seem more alive than his women...."
    Note Source: Journal 7/14/1895


  28. When Knighthood Was in Flower

  29. Author: Major, Charles
    Title: When Knighthood Was in Flower
    Date: 1898
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "The Hundred Worst Books and They That Wrote Them" Cather writes: "If there are not more than a hundred of them in themselves I should surely put into the category of poor books most of these insincere historical romances, from sweet Janice and When Knighthood Was in Flower down to the least successful and least convincing of the lot." According to Willa Cather Remembered, Charles Major was Cather's dinner partner at a dinner for Mark Twain. She and Major discovered that they both knew Fred Otte. When Knighthood was in Flower was on the The New York Tiimes bestseller list for three years. Nothing was said here about her reaction to it.
    Note Source: "The Hundred Worst Books and They That Wrote Them"; Willa Cather Remembered 46


  30. When the Prussians Came to Poland

  31. Author: Turczynowicz, Laura de Gozdawa
    Title: When the Prussians Came to Poland
    Date: 1916
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: A likely source for One of Ours.
    Note Source: One of Ours "Historical Essay" Scholarly Edition 652


  32. "When We Two Parted"

  33. Author: Byron, George Gordon
    Title: "When We Two Parted"
    Date: 1816
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In My Antonia IV, when Antonia and Jim Burden meet after years apart, Cather turns the meaning of Byron's line "When we two parted in silence and tears" to "like people in the old song, in silence, if not in tears." In Lucy Gayheart Part I, Lucy hears Sebastian Clement sing a vocal adaptation of Byron's poetry, then recalls it later when they part.
    Note Source: My Antonia Book IV, Chap. 4; Lucy Gayheart Book 1, Chap. 4, 18


  34. "Where Go the Boats"

  35. Author: Stevenson, Robert Louis
    Title: "Where Go the Boats"
    Date: 1885
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather quotes the entire first stanza at the beginning of "The Treasure of Far Island" ("Dark brown is the river . . . ") and the first line of stanza two at the beginning of part two: "Green leaves a-floating." One can look for many allusions to Stevenson throughout that story.
    Note Source: Collected Short Fiction 1892-1912 265, 276


  36. Where Stands a Winged Sentry

  37. Author: Kennedy, Margaret
    Title: Where Stands a Winged Sentry
    Date: 1941
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather thanks Julian Street for sending Margaret Kennedy's Where Stands a Winged Sentry.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #1550


  38. "The White Heron"

  39. Author: Jewett, Sarah Orne
    Title: "The White Heron"
    Date: 1886
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather carries a copy of "The White Heron" and "the Dunnet ladies" with her.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #138


  40. Widowers' Houses

  41. Author: Shaw, George Bernard
    Title: Widowers' Houses
    Date: 1892
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "If Mr. Shaw had...permitted even one of his characters either a conscience or a heart, he would have made a great play. As it is, he has only a whimsical travesty for his pains."
    Note Source: Leader 12/2/1898


  42. The Wife

  43. Author: Belasco, David
    Title: The Wife
    Date: 1887
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Reviewed Belasco's The Wife for Nebraska State Journal on 9/25/1895. Comparing Belasco's The Wife to his Men and Women in the Leader in 1897: "To me, this change in Miss Trueman's affections has very much the same disastrous effect that the fact of the hero's actual criminality has in Men and Women. Yet of the two plays, the situations in The Wife are not so forced, the characters are more human, and are not so entirely given over to the baleful influence of YMCA emotions" (Leader, 11/23/1897).
    Note Source: Journal 9/25/1895; Leader 11/23/1897


  44. The Wild Duck

  45. Author: Ibsen, Henrik
    Title: The Wild Duck
    Date: 1884
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: "Let Mr. Shaw turn him to his master, Ibsen, and read The Wild Duck over again, and he will find that it is a dangerous business, this tearing our life-lies away from us."
    Note Source: Leader 12/2/1898


  46. Wild Eden

  47. Author: Woodberry, George E.
    Title: Wild Eden
    Date: 1899
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: "This volume contains many ideas set forth in verse, many musical lines, but not one poem."
    Note Source: Courier 3/10/1900


  48. Wild Grapes

  49. Author: Frost, Robert
    Title: Wild Grapes
    Date: 1920
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: In a note to Robert Frost on The Professor's House, Cather wrote: "This is really a story of 'letting go with the heart' but most reviewers seem to consider it an attempt to popularize a system of philosophy"; she is alluding to the closing line of Frost's poem.
    Note Source: Sergeant 215


  50. Wilhelm Meister

  51. Author: Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von
    Title: Wilhelm Meister
    Date: 1796
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Both Niel Herbert in A Lost Lady and Vickie Templeton in "Old Mrs. Harris" read Wilhelm Meister.
    Note Source: A Lost Lady Book I, Chap. 7; Obscure Destinies 90


  52. Wind Among the Reeds

  53. Author: Yeats, William Butler
    Title: Wind Among the Reeds
    Date: 1899
    Genre: poetry
    Note Relating to Cather: "Now unless actuated by promptings of duty or business necessity, I would never read, or even begin to read, a volume of poetry with forty-three pages of notes ... But in spite of his notes and the fact that Mr. Yeats is probably an ethnologist, he can write real poetry."
    Note Source: Leader 6/3/1899


  54. Winesburg, Ohio

  55. Author: Anderson, Sherwood
    Title: Winesburg, Ohio
    Date: 1919
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Richard Harris points out that Gladys Farmer "shares a number of characteristics with Kate Swift in Sherwood Anderson's "The Teacher."
    Note Source: One of Ours "Historical Essay" Scholarly Edition 648


  56. The Winter's Tale

  57. Author: Shakespeare, William
    Title: The Winter's Tale
    Date: 1623
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: In My Antonia, Jim learns that Mary Anderson is "having a great success in The Winter's Tale, in London.
    Note Source: My Antonia Book II, Chap. 7


  58. With Fire and Sword

  59. Author: Sienkiewicz, Henryk
    Title: With Fire and Sword
    Date: 1890
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Calls Quo Vadis? a "powerful, remarkable book," but less "meritorious" than his other work: With Fire and Sword, The Deluge, Pan Michael, Without Dogma, and "several others," translated from Polish into English by Jeremiah Curtin.
    Note Source: Home Monthly 2/1898


  60. With Fire and Sword: A Historical Romance of Russia and Poland

  61. Author: Sienkiewicz, Henryk
    Title: With Fire and Sword: A Historical Romance of Russia and Poland
    Date: 1884
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "Yet these two men [Kipling and Zola], different as they are, are the only living writers who have at their command the virility of the epic manner, unless one include the author of With Fire and Sword."
    Note Source: Courier 4/4/1899


  62. Within a Budding Grove

  63. Author: Proust, Marcel
    Title: Within a Budding Grove
    Date: 1918
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather thanks Swinnerton for sending Proust's Within a Budding Grove.
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #745


  64. "Without Benefit of Clergy"

  65. Author: Kipling, Rudyard
    Title: "Without Benefit of Clergy"
    Date: 1891
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "He has been trying to live a respectable Puritan life in Vermont and be a full-fledged family man.... Go back to the east, Mr. Kipling; we and our world are not for you. Our life is not free enough for you and you are not strong enough for it.... Go back to the land where you wrote 'The Gate of a Hundred Sorrows' and 'Without Benefit of Clergy' and 'On the City Wall'.... Ah, Mr. Kipling, it would be sad and tragical if it were not so laughable that you who wrote 'The Story of the Gadsbys' should be the victim of matrimony. It has shorn the wings of your freedom, and your freedom was your art.... Alas! There were so many men who could have married Mrs. Kipling, and there was only you who could write Soldiers Three."
    Note Source: Journal 12/23/1894


  66. Without Dogma

  67. Author: Sienkiewicz, Henryk
    Title: Without Dogma
    Date: 1893
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Calls Quo Vadis? a "powerful, remarkable book," but less "meritorious" than his other work: With Fire and Sword, The Deluge, Pan Michael, Without Dogma, and "several others," translated from Polish into English by Jeremiah Curtin.
    Note Source: Home Monthly 2/1898


  68. Woman's Bible

  69. Author: Stanton, Elizabeth Cady
    Title: Woman's Bible
    Date: 1895
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "The only aim of these ladies seems to have been to take each female character in the Bible, no matter what the role she plays, and prove that she was a ministering angel unjustly and cruelly misplaced upon a sphere peopled with shocking men, and that although she might temporarily be subjugated by these monsters, she would eventually soar back to Paradise in all her pristine purity, leaving man to go his own grovelling way to the gates Infernal.... Most of the remarks about these Hebrew ladies are entirely without actual foundation and frequently irrelevant."
    Note Source: Leader 4/8/1898


  70. The Wonder Clock

  71. Author: Pyle, Howard
    Title: The Wonder Clock
    Date: 1888
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Howard Pyle "is as careful and painstaking and artistic with his children's books as the very best novelists are with their novels. The Wonder Clock [1888] or Salt and Pepper for Young Folks [1886] cannot fail to make children happy. But best of them all is Pyle's Otto of the Silver Hand. It is a story of German chivalry in the days of the robber barons, and when a boy is through with it he has a very fair idea what that phrase 'the Middle Ages' meant."
    Note Source: Home Monthly 1/1897


  72. The Workers

  73. Author: Wyckoff, Walter
    Title: The Workers
    Date: 1897
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "His observations will be valuable to sociologists, but when all is said they are but stiff-necked colorless reports... With no more life in them than a college thesis on 'Our Vagrant Classes.'"
    Note Source: Leader 6/17/1899


  74. Wounds in the Rain

  75. Author: Crane, Stephen
    Title: Wounds in the Rain
    Date: 1900
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In her introduction to the text, Cather praised the author as someone who "simply knew from the beginning how to handle detail."
    Note Source: World and the Parish 2:772


  76. The Wrecker

  77. Author: Stevenson, Robert Louis
    Title: The Wrecker
    Date: 1892
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: "For the most part [mystery stories] are read and thrown aside and forgotten as quickly as a puzzle that is solved, for they contain none of the elements of lasting satisfaction. Of course there are notable exceptions. ... But of all the stories of mystery, old and new, give us The Wrecker, by that master of the art of telling a good tale, Robert Louis Stevenson."
    Note Source: Journal 3/22/1896


  78. The Wrong Mr. Wright

  79. Author: Broadhurst, George
    Title: The Wrong Mr. Wright
    Date: 1897
    Genre: drama
    Note Relating to Cather: Reviewed for the Leader.
    Note Source: Leader 9/22/1896


    A Year in the Navy

  1. Author: Husband, Joseph
    Title: A Year in the Navy
    Date: 1919
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather asks Greenslet to send her Joseph Husband's A Year in the Navyin Jaffrey. Richard Harris declares: "almost every detail of Cather's descriptions in the first three chapters of "The Voyage of the Anchises" has a parallel in Husband's book . . . ."
    Note Source: A Calendar of the Letters of Willa Cather #475: One of Ours Historical Essay 649.


  2. Yellow Book: An Illustrated Quarterly

  3. Title: Yellow Book: An Illustrated Quarterly
    Date: 1894-1897
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: In "Double Birthday," Albert Engelhardt owns a complete 13-volume set of the Yellow Book, an illustrated literary magazine with a contentious reputation.
    Note Source: Uncle Valentine and Other Stories 45


  4. Young Lives

  5. Author: Le Gallienne, Richard
    Title: Young Lives
    Date: 1899
    Genre: fiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Cather reviews Young Lives for the Leader.
    Note Source: Leader 6/17/1899


  6. Youth's Companion

  7. Title: Youth's Companion
    Date: 1827-1929
    Genre: nonfiction
    Note Relating to Cather: Ivy Peters, in A Lost Lady, ordered a taxidermy kit from the Youth's Companion.
    Note Source: A Lost Lady Book I, Chap. 2